MiRNAs as Common Regulators of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Pathway in the Preeclamptic Placenta and Cadmium-treated Trophoblasts: Links between the Environment, the Epigenome and Preeclampsia
ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disorder characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria that can cause adverse health effects in both mother and fetus. There is no current cure for PE other than delivery of the fetus. While the etiology is unknown, poor placentation of the placenta due to aberrant signaling of growth and angiogenic factors has been postulated as causal factors of PE. In addition, environmental contaminants, such as the metal cadmium (Cd), have been linked to placental toxicity and increased risk of developing PE. Here, we use a translational study design to investigate genomic and epigenomic alterations in both placentas and placental trophoblasts, focused on the angiogenesis-associated transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway. Genes within the TGF-β pathway displayed increased expression in both the preeclamptic placenta and Cd-treated trophoblasts. In addition, miRNAs that target the TGF-β pathway were also significantly altered within the preeclamptic placenta and Cd-treated trophoblasts. Integrative analysis resulted in the identification of a subset of Cd-responsive miRNAs, including miR-26a and miR-155, common to preeclamptic placentas and Cd-treated trophoblasts. These miRNAs have previously been linked to PE and are predicted to regulate members of the TGF-β pathway. Results from this study provide future targets for PE treatment. Overall design: Placental Tissue Samples from 32 women (16 normotensive women, denoted with a P, and 16 preeclamptic women, denoted with a Q) were analyzed for differenital miRNA expression controling for age, race and gestational age JEG3 cells were exposed and not exposed to cadmium and were analyzed for differential miRNA expression JEG3 cell changes were compared to preelcampsia associated changes to determine overlaps
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-031181 Unrestricted_Human_miRNA_V16.0_Microarray 030840 (Feature Number version)
Project description:Placental Tissue Samples from 36 women (17 normotensive women, denoted with a P, and 19 preeclamptic women, denoted with a Q) were analyzed for differenital methylation Preeclamptic womene were compared direclty to normotensive women controlling for gestational age, race, maternal age, and baby sex 36 samples were analyzed: 17 normotensive, 19 preeclamptic
Project description:Placental Tissue Samples from 36 women (17 normotensive women, denoted with a P, and 19 preeclamptic women, denoted with a Q) were analyzed for differenital methylation Preeclamptic womene were compared direclty to normotensive women controlling for gestational age, race, maternal age, and baby sex 36 samples were analyzed, 18 in each group
Project description:Fibrosis are known as one of the characteristic pathological findings of placenta in preeclampsia (PE). The mechanism underlying tissue injury when placental stroma is exposed to hypoxia and inflammatory stimulation is unclear. We focused on the relationship between pathogenesis of PE and placental fibrosis, and investigated the changes of fibrosis related factors (FRFs) in placental stroma. The mRNA levels of fibrosis related factors in PE were higher than those in normal pregnancy (NP). Those under hypoxia and by TGF-β stimulation were more prominent in PE compared with NP. The contraction rate of PE had significantly higher than that of NP. The significant elevation of plasma level of TGF-β in PE was indicated compared with those in NP. Overall design: The placental fibroblasts of PE are more sensitive to hypoxia and TGF-β stimulation than those of NP, and are prone to produce fibrosis. This study showed the possibility the placental fibrosis in PE pregnancy is induced by hypoxia and TGFβ stimulation.
Project description:Preeclampsia is a disease of pregnant women, which is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and chronic inflammation. There is a growing body of evidence that cause of preeclampsia lies within immunological aspect of pregnancy. This study aimed to analyze the role of CD74 in preeclampsia with a focus on its influence on communication between placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells) and trophoblasts. We have found CD74 to be highly dysregulated in preeclamptic placenta by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot methods. We identified Hofbauer cells to express the highest levels of CD74 in placenta by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry and that CD74 in preeclamptic Hofbauer cells is lower than in controls. We have performed a transcriptome analysis on human blood monocyte-derived macrophages that were non- or IL-4-activated and treated with small interfering RNA against CD74 (siRNA CD74) or non-targeting siRNA (siRNA non-targeting) as control.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the difference of the miRNA profiles between normal and preeclamptic placenta. Ten placental samples were analyzed. Six were from preeclamptic patients and four were from normal pregnancies.
Project description:Though the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE) is unclear worldwide, placental hypoxia has been implicated in the pathologic processes of PE.In this study, we profiled the transcriptome in BeWo and JEG-3 cells cultured in hypoxic condition or normal ones based on the RNA sequencing dataset. After filtered the low-quality ones, the RNA readers was aligned to human genome hg19 by TopHat and then assembled by Cufflinks. The expression value of each transcript was calculated and consequently differentially expressed genes were screened out. CD39 and ZDHHC14 were found to have both different mRNA in hypoxic cells and abnormal methylation level in severely preeclamptic placentas. The mRNA expression of CD39 and ZDHHC14 in placental tissues were analyzed using qRT-PCR. The differential methylated regions (DMRs) of CD39 and ZDHHC14 were confirmed by MassARRY EppiTYPER. The effect of hypoxia on trophoblast cells was detected with western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed CD39 and ZDHHC14were significantly lower in severe PE placenta, hypoxia significantly reduced the expression of CD39 and ZDHHC14 and the secretion of CD39 in trophoblast cells. Therefore, we believed hypoxia plays an important role in the processes of severe PE via decreasing the expression of CD39 and ZDHHC14 by changing their methylation level in placenta. Overall design: mRNA profiles of three cell lines at five stages and two different conditions were generated by deep sequencing, using HiSeq 2500.
Project description:Analysis of the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between E. faecalis and host placental barrier at gene expression level. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that E. faecalis influence the ranscriptomic profiling of human placental trophoblasts. Results provide important information of the response of human placental trophoblasts to E. faecalis, such as Several representative terms of the differentially expressed genes are involved in apoptosis, stress and stimulus response, placenta and embryonic development, immune response, and cell adhesion. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from human placental trophoblasts subjected to 4 hours in vitro E. faecalis compared to untreated control.
Project description:Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is hypothesized to be associated with, if not mechanistically related to abnormal placental function. However, the exact mechanisms regulating the pathogenesis of PE remain unclear. While many studies have investigated changes in gene expression in the PE placenta, the role of epigenetics in PE associated placental dysfunction remains unclear. Using the genome-wide Illumina Infinium Methylation 450 BeadChip array, we analyzed gene-specific alterations in DNA methylation in placental biopsies collected from normal pregnant women delivering at term (n=14), with term PE (≥37 weeks; n=19) or with preterm PE (<37 weeks, n=12). Of the 485,582 gene loci on the array, compared to controls, 229 loci were differentially methylated in PE placentas and 3411 loci were differentially methylated in preterm PE (step up p-value <0.05 and >5% methylation difference). Functional annotation of the differentially methylated genes in preterm PE placentas revealed a 32 gene cluster in the cadherin and cell adhesion functional groups (Benjamini p<0.00001). Hypermethylation of CDH11 (p=0.0143), COL5A1 (p=0.0127) and TNF (p=0.0098) and hypomethylation of NCAM1 (p=0.0158) was associated with altered mRNA expression in preterm PE placentas. These studies demonstrate aberrant methylation, correlating with disease severity, in PE placentas. Bisulphite converted DNA from the 45 samples were hybridised to the Illumina Infinium 450k Human Methylation Beadchip v1.2
Project description:Data on the temporal dynamics of human placental gene expression is scarce. We have completed the first whole-genome profiling of human placental gene expression dynamics (GeneChips, Affymetrix®) from early to mid- gestation (10 samples; gestational weeks 5 to 18) and report 154 genes with considerable change in transcript levels (FDR P<0.1). Functional enrichment analysis revealed >200 GO categories that are statistically over-represented among 105 genes with dynamically increasing transcript levels. Analysis in an extended sample (n=43; gestational weeks 5 to 41) conformed a highly significant (FDR P<0.05) expressional peak in mid-gestation placenta for ten genes: BMP5, CCNG2, CDH11, FST, GATM, GPR183, ITGBL1, PLAGL1, SLC16A10, STC1. A central hypothesis of our study states that the aberrant expression of genes characteristic to mid-gestation placenta may contribute to affected fetal growth, maternal preeclampsia (PE) or gestational diabetes (GD). The gene STC1 coding for Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was identified with a sharp placental expressional peak in mid-gestation, increased mRNA levels at term and significantly elevated STC1 protein levels in post-partum maternal plasma in all pregnancy complications. The highest STC1 levels were identified in women, who developed simultaneously PE and delivered an SGA baby (median 731 vs 418 pg/ml in controls; P=0.001). CCNG2 and LYPD6 exhibited significantly increased placental mRNA expression and enhanced intensity of immunohistochemistry staining in placental sections all studied in GD and PE cases. Aberrant expression of mid-gestation specific genes in pregnancy complications at term indicates the importance of the fine-scale tuning of the temporal dynamics of transcription regulation in placenta. Observed significantly elevated plasma STC1 in complicated pregnancies warrants further investigations of its potential as a biomarker. Interestingly, a majority of genes with high expression in mid-gestation placenta have also been implicated in adult complex disease. This observation promotes a recently opened discussion on the role of placenta in developmental programming. 4 samples; this submission is extension of our earlier study (accession GSE22490).
Project description:A major population of placenta macrophages represented throughout the pregnancy consists of CD14+ macrophages, but their characteristics remain badly understood. Here we purified from placentas at term CD14+ macrophages using positive selection. The phenotyping of CD14+ macrophages performed using flow cytometry revealed that placenta CD14+ macrophages expressed a series of markers distinct of those of circulating monocytes monocyte-derived macrophages. Placenta CD14+ macrophages spontaneously matured in multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) as demonstrated by size, number of nuclei display and specific cytoskeleton organization. Placenta CD14+ macrophages and MGCs were phagocytic cells but the potential of MGCs to mount an inflammatory response was lower than that of their precursors. Placenta CD14+ macrophages and MGCs stimulated with interferon and interleukin-4 were not polarized into typical M1 or M2 profiles. Placenta macrophages exhibited specific activation transcriptional programs. Indeed, principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering show that placental macrophages formed a distinct group from circulating monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Among placenta macrophages, it was also possible to distinguish CD14+ macrophages and MGCs. In addition, networks based on gene interactions were clearly different in CD14+ macrophages and MGCs. Finally, the microenvironment of placenta CD14+ macrophages governs their differentiation into MGCs because CD14+ macrophages incubated with trophoblasts exhibited exarcerbated characteristics of MGCs and because the co-incubation of circulating monocytes from working women with trophoblast supernatants resulted into the formation of MGCs whereas monocytes from non-pregnant women incubated with trophoblast supernatants did not differentiate into MGCs. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrated specific feaures of placenta CD14+ macrophages. Three replicates of each of the following: 1. Placental macrophages just after isolation (CD14+ macrophages) 2. Placental macrophages after 9 days in culture (MGCs) 3. CD14+ cells isolated from PBMC which are extracted from the whole human blood of healthy donors (Monocytes) 4. Macrophages derived from monocytes (MDMs)