Identification of resistance mechanisms to anti-HER2 antibody in breast cancer cell line BT-474
ABSTRACT: Background: The addition of the anti-HER2 antibody pertuzumab to trastuzumab/chemotherapy treatment in HER2+ breast cancer significantly improves clinical outcome. Concomitantly, the drug-antibody conjugate T-DM1 (trastuzumab-emantasine) has demonstrated efficacy, at least equal, to the combination of trastuzumab/chemotherapy. Scientific, economic and health challenges emerge from the clinical use of these novel anti-HER2 antibodies, aimed to identify new resistance mechanisms and to select the target breast cancer population. Objectives: (1) To identify primary resistance mechanisms to anti-HER2 antibodies trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and to the combined trastuzumab/pertuzumab or pertuzumab/T-DM1 therapy, (2) To identify acquired resistance mechanisms to anti-HER2 antibodies trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and to the combined trastuzumab/pertuzumab or pertuzumab/T-DM1 therapy, (3) To develop new combinations of anti-HER2 antibodies with other targeted therapies. Overall design: Samples: Breast cancer cell line BT-474. Treatments: trastuzumab-conditioned cultures. Control samples: same cell lines with no treatment. Triplicates.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HuGene-2_0-st] Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST Array [transcript (gene) version]
Project description:HER2-targeting antibodies (trastuzumab, pertuzumab) and a HER2-directed antibody-drug conjugate (trastuzumab emtansine: T-DM1) are used for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. However, these treatments eventually become ineffective due to acquired resistance and there is an urgent need for alternative therapies. TAS0728 is a small-molecule, irreversible selective HER2 kinase inhibitor. In the present study, we established new in vivo models of cancer resistance by continuous exposure to a combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab or to T-DM1 for evaluating the effect of TAS0728 on HER2 antibody-resistant populations. Treatment with trastuzumab and pertuzumab or with T-DM1 initially induced tumor regression in NCI-N87 xenografts. However, tumor regrowth during treatment indicated loss of drug effectiveness. In tumors with acquired resistance to trastuzumab and pertuzumab or to T-DM1, HER2-HER3 phosphorylation was retained. Switching to TAS0728 resulted in a significant anti-tumor effect associated with HER2-HER3 signal inhibition. No alternative receptor tyrosine kinase activation was observed in these resistant tumors. Furthermore, in a patient-derived xenograft model derived from breast cancer refractory to both trastuzumab/pertuzumab and T-DM1, TAS0728 exerted a potent anti-tumor effect. These results suggest that tumors with acquired resistance to trastuzumab and pertuzumab and to T-DM1 are still dependent on oncogenic HER2-HER3 signaling and are vulnerable to HER2 signal inhibition by TAS0728. These results provide a rationale for TAS0728 therapy for breast cancers that are refractory to established anti-HER2 therapies.
Project description:Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, both in the metastatic and early stage settings. While trastuzumab and lapatinib had been the mainstays of treatment in combination with chemotherapy, innate and acquired resistance to these therapies occur. More recently, two additional HER2-directed therapies have been approved for HER2-positive breast cancer. Pertuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular portion of the receptor on a domain distinct from the binding site of trastuzumab. The addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab results in synergistic tumor cell inhibition and has been shown to significantly improve clinical outcomes for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) compared to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy alone. In addition, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), a novel antibody-drug conjugate linking trastuzumab with the cytotoxic maytansinoid, DM1, is an effective treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer that has progressed on other HER2-directed therapies. Both pertuzumab and T-DM1 are relatively well tolerated. This review presents the mechanisms of action as well as phase I, II and III clinical data describing the safety and efficacy of pertuzumab and T-DM1 for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Project description:HER2-targeted immunotherapy consists of monoclonal antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab, pertuzumab), bispecific antibodies (e.g. MM-111, ertumaxomab) and activated T cells armed with anti-HER2 bispecific antibody (HER2Bi-aATC). Trastuzumab is a classic drug for the treatment of HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. The combined application of pertuzumab, trastuzumab and paclitaxel has been suggested as a standard therapy for HER2 positive advanced breast cancer. The resistance to anti-HER2 antibody has resulted in disease progression. HER2-directed bispecific antibody may be a promising therapeutic approach for these patients. Ertumaxomab enhanced the interaction of immune effector cells and tumor cells. MM-111 simultaneously binds to HER2 and HER3 and blocks downstream signaling. Besides, HER2Bi-aATC is also an alternative therapeutic approach for HER2 positive cancers. In this review, we summarized the recent advancement of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibodies (trastuzumab, pertuzumab and T-DM1) and bispecific antibodies (MM-111, ertumaxomab and HER2Bi-aATC), especially focus on clinical trial results.
Project description:Purpose Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -targeted monoclonal antibodies, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that combines the properties of trastuzumab with the cytotoxic activity of DM1. T-DM1 demonstrated encouraging efficacy and safety in a phase II study of patients with previously untreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Combination T-DM1 and pertuzumab showed synergistic activity in cell culture models and had an acceptable safety profile in a phase Ib and II study. Methods In the MARIANNE study, 1,095 patients with centrally assessed, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer and no prior therapy for advanced disease were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to control (trastuzumab plus taxane), T-DM1 plus placebo, hereafter T-DM1, or T-DM1 plus pertuzumab at standard doses. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by independent review. Results T-DM1 and T-DM1 plus pertuzumab showed noninferior PFS compared with trastuzumab plus taxane (median PFS: 13.7 months with trastuzumab plus taxane, 14.1 months with T-DM1, and 15.2 months with T-DM1 plus pertuzumab). Neither experimental arm showed PFS superiority to trastuzumab plus taxane. Response rate was 67.9% in patients who were treated with trastuzumab plus taxane, 59.7% with T-DM1, and 64.2% with T-DM1 plus pertuzumab; median response duration was 12.5 months, 20.7 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The incidence of grade ? 3 adverse events was numerically higher in the control arm (54.1%) versus the T-DM1 arm (45.4%) and T-DM1 plus pertuzumab arm (46.2%). Numerically fewer patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events in the T-DM1 arms, and health-related quality of life was maintained for longer in the T-DM1 arms. Conclusion T-DM1 showed noninferior, but not superior, efficacy and better tolerability than did taxane plus trastuzumab for first-line treatment of HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is associated with a number of human malignancies and is an important therapeutic target. The antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1; Kadcyla® ) is recommended as a first-line treatment for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. T-DM1 combines the antibody-induced effects of the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin® ) with the cytotoxic effect of the tubulin inhibitor mertansine (DM1). For DM1 to have effect, the T-DM1-HER2 complex has to be internalized and the trastuzumab part of T-DM1 has to be degraded. HER2 is, however, considered endocytosis-resistant. As a result of this, trastuzumab is only internalized to a highly limited extent, and if internalized, it is rapidly recycled. The exact reasons for the endocytosis resistance of HER2 are not clear, but it is stabilized by heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and Hsp90 inhibitors induce internalization and degradation of HER2. HER2 can also be internalized upon activation of protein kinase C, and contrary to trastuzumab alone, the combination of two or more anti-HER2 antibodies can induce efficient internalization and degradation of HER2. With intention to find ways to improve the action of T-DM1, we investigated how different ways of inducing HER2 internalization leads to degradation of trastuzumab. The results show that although both Hsp90 inhibition and activation of protein kinase C induce internalization of trastuzumab, only Hsp90 inhibition induces degradation. Furthermore, we find that antibody internalization and degradation are increased when trastuzumab is combined with the clinically approved anti-HER2 antibody pertuzumab (Perjeta® ).
Project description:Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeted against the HER2 tyrosine kinase receptor. Although trastuzumab is a very active agent in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, the majority of patients with metastatic HER2-overexpressing breast cancer who initially respond to trastuzumab develop resistance within 1 year of initiation of treatment and, in the adjuvant setting, progress despite trastuzumab-based therapy. The antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab-DM1 (T-DM1) was designed to combine the biological activity of trastuzumab with the targeted delivery of a highly potent antimicrotubule agent, DM1 (N-methyl-N-[3-mercapto-1-oxopropyl]-l-alanine ester of maytansinol), a maytansine derivative, to HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. T-DM1 is the first antibody-drug conjugate with a nonreducible thioether linker in clinical trials. Phase I and II clinical trials of T-DM1 as a single agent and in combination with paclitaxel, docetaxel and pertuzumab have shown clinical activity and a favorable safety profile in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Two randomized phase III trials of T-DM1 are awaiting final results; the EMILIA trial is evaluating T-DM1 compared with lapatinib plus capecitabine, and early positive results have been reported. The MARIANNE trial is evaluating T-DM1 plus placebo versus T-DM1 plus pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus a taxane. Here, we summarize evidence from clinical studies and discuss the potential clinical implications of T-DM1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The objective of this study was to compare the anti-tumor activity of HER2/neu-targeting monoclonal antibodies, trastuzumab (T), pertuzumab (P), combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab (T+P) and trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in EOC with high HER2/neu expression. METHODS:Primary EOC cell lines were established and cell blocks were analyzed for HER2/neu expression. Cytostatic, apoptotic and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities of T, P, T+P and T-DM1 were evaluated in vitro. The in vivo antitumor activity was tested in xenograft models with 3+ HER2/neu expression. RESULTS:High (3+) HER2/neu expression was detected in 40% of the primary EOC cell lines. T, P, T+P, and T-DM1 were similarly effective in inducing strong ADCC against primary EOC cell lines expressing 3+ HER2/neu. The combination of T and P was more cytostatic when compared with that of T or P used alone (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). T-DM1 induced significantly more apoptosis when compared with T+P (p<0.0001). Finally, T-DM1 was significantly more effective in tumor growth inhibition in vivo in EOC xenografts overexpressing HER2/neu when compared to T alone, P alone and T+P (p=0.04). CONCLUSION:In vitro and in vivo experiments with 3+ HER2/neu expressing EOC revealed limited anti-tumor activity of T or P. T-DM1 showed superior anti-tumor activity to T and P as single agents and as a combination. Our preclinical data support the design of clinical studies with T-DM1 for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant EOC overexpressing HER2/neu.
Project description:PURPOSE:Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer eventually develop resistance to dual-antibody therapy with trastuzumab plus pertuzumab. Mechanisms of resistance have not been well elucidated. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) plus neratinib in patients who progressed on trastuzumab plus pertuzumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this 3 + 3 dose-escalation study, patients with metastatic breast cancer who progressed on trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and a taxane were treated with T-DM1 at 3.6 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks and dose-escalating neratinib at 120, 160, 200, or 240 mg/d orally. RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients were treated across four dose-levels of neratinib. Dose-limiting toxicity in cycle 1 was grade 3 diarrhea in six patients and grade 3 nausea in one; no patient experienced grade 4 diarrhea, and there were no grade 5 toxicities. Other grade 3 to 4 toxicities included nausea (11%), dehydration (11%), electrolyte abnormality (19%), thrombocytopenia (15%), elevated transaminase levels (7%), and fatigue (7%). Twelve (63%) of 19 evaluable patients had an objective response. Responses occurred at all neratinib doses. Plasma cell-free DNA at baseline showed ERBB2 (HER2) amplification in 10 of 27 patients. Deep and more durable responses occurred in patients with cell-free DNA ERBB2 amplification. Two complete responders had high expression of total HER2 and p95HER2 in baseline tissue. CONCLUSION:We report the recommended phase II dose of T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg and neratinib 160 mg/d for this combination. Possible resistance mechanisms to HER2 antibodies may be loss of the HER2 receptor and high expression of p95HER2. These data provide the basis for an ongoing phase II study to better define the activity of this regimen.
Project description:Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-positive breast cancer (HER2+ BC) is defined by increased amplification of the ERBB2/neu oncogene and/or overexpression of its associated HER2 transmembrane receptor protein. HER2+ BC represents approximately 15-20% of breast cancer, and it is independently associated with a higher grade, more aggressive phenotype, and worse prognosis. With the advent of trastuzumab, the prognostic landscape for HER2+ BC patients has considerably improved. However, both de novo and acquired resistance to trastuzumab remain a significant obstacle for many patients, requiring novel therapies for further clinical benefit. Over the last two decades, there has been extraordinary progress in the development of HER2+ BC treatment regimens, with extensions into HER2-amplified gastroesophageal junction cancer via the NCI-MATCH precision medicine trial program (NCT02465060). Trastuzumab, pertuzumab, T-DM1, and lapatinib are commonly recommended as a single agent (along with chemotherapy) or in combinations of anti-HER2 agents in neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Currently, the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and taxane chemotherapy are first-line for HER2+/HR- metastatic breast cancer with potential breakthrough therapies such as trastuzumab-deruxtecan (DS-8201a), margetuximab and tucatinib (ONT-380) on the horizon. Furthermore, recent clinical trials have demonstrated the potential utility of hormone receptor status, PAM-50 luminal intrinsic subtype, PD-L1, and TIL as predictive biomarkers for response to HER2+ therapies. We briefly introduce the origin of HER2, the invention of trastuzumab, and the classification of HER2+ BC. Each HER2-targeted therapy is then presented by indication, mechanism of action, and relevant clinical trials with subsequent elaboration and contextualization within clinical settings with an epilogue of potential future biomarkers for clinical use in HER2+ BC. We summarize the most significant and updated research in clinical practice relevant to HER2+ BC management and highlight the clinical status of upcoming anti-HER2 agents as well as immunotherapy drugs in combination with anti-HER2 agents.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted regimens (anti-HER2 target agent combined chemotherapy) have been introduced for the treatment of HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer progressed after trastuzumab. We therefore conducted a network meta-analysis to compare and rank HER2-targeted regimens in this population after trastuzumab therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>The electronic databases of PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the websites of http://clinicaltrials.gov/ (US NIH) were systematically searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from their inception to October, 2020. Nine treatment regimens were eligible to be included in this analysis. The primary outcomes were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), while the secondary outcomes were grade ?3 adverse events.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 2,104 citations were identified and 12 RCTs comprising 3,769 patients were selected for final analysis. For HER2 positive unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic patients progressed after trastuzumab therapy pyrotinib plus capecitabine ranked the highest surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) in PFS, ORR and its SUCRA in OS was higher than Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). T-DM1 plus atezolizumab, pyrotinib plus capecitabine, and pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus capecitabine had comparable SUCRA in OS (76.1% <i>vs.</i> 74.5% <i>vs.</i> 71.2%). Six of included studies reported any grade ?3 adverse events, the prevalence of any grade ?3 adverse events in lapatinib plus capecitabine (353/683), T-DM1 (213/558), trastuzumab plus capecitabine (130/218), pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus capecitabine (118/228), pyrotinib plus capecitabine (220/384), T-DM1 plus atezolizumab (43/132) and capecitabine (24/94) were 51.7%, 38.2%, 59.6%, 51.8%, 57.3%, 32.6% and 25.5%, respectively. Specific adverse event characteristics related to different HER2-targeted regimens need to be well known ahead and managed during the therapy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results indicated that for HER2 positive breast cancer with previous trastuzumab therapy pyrotinib plus capecitabine was probably more efficacious in PFS and ORR. T-DM1 plus atezolizumab, pyrotinib plus capecitabine and pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus capecitabine have comparable effect on OS improvement and all of them were likely better than T-DM1. The risk of grade ?3 adverse events for specific treatment regimens were also provided.