Low H3K27me3 and DNA hypomethylation define poorly prognostic pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas
ABSTRACT: A subgroup of Posterior fossa ependymomas show reduced H3K27me3, global DNA hypomethylation, are more invasive, exhibit poor prognosis and epigenetically deregulated genes converge on radial glial factors, suggesting developing cerebellar radial glia as candidate cells-of-origin. Overall design: RNA-sequencingwas performed in 15 posterior fossa (PF) ependymoma samples. 11 samples show low H3K27me3 and designated PF_H3K27me3-ve; 4 samples show high H3K27me3 and designated PF_H3K27me3+ve
Project description:A subgroup of Posterior fossa ependymomas show reduced H3K27me3 are more invasive, exhibit poor prognosis and epigenetically deregulated genes converge on radial glial factors, suggesting developing cerebellar radial glia as candidate cells-of-origin. Overall design: H3K27me3 ChIP sequencing was performed on 3 posterior fossa (PF) and 3 supratentorial (ST) ependymoma samples. 3 PF ependmoma samples showed low H3K27me3 and designated PF_H3K27me3-ve; all 3 ST ependymoma samples show high H3K27me3 and desginated ST_H3K27me3+ve
Project description:A subgroup of Posterior fossa ependymomas show reduced H3K27me3, global DNA hypomethylation, are more invasive, exhibit poor prognosis and epigenetically deregulated genes converge on radial glial factors, suggesting developing cerebellar radial glia as candidate cells-of-origin. Overall design: RNA-sequencing was performed in 5 posterior fossa (PF) and three supratentorial (ST) ependymoma samples. All 5 PF samples show low H3K27me3 and designated PF_H3K27me3-ve; all 3 ST ependymoma samples show high H3K27me3 and desginated ST_H3K27me3+ve
Project description:Childhood posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas cause substantial morbidity and mortality. These tumors lack recurrent genetic mutations, but a subset of these ependymomas exhibits CpG island (CpGi) hypermethylation [PF group A (PFA)], implicating epigenetic alterations in their pathogenesis. Further, histological grade does not reliably predict prognosis, highlighting the importance of developing more robust prognostic markers. We discovered global H3K27me3 reduction in a subset of these tumors (PF-ve ependymomas) analogous to H3K27M mutant gliomas. PF-ve tumors exhibited many clinical and biological similarities with PFA ependymomas. Genomic H3K27me3 distribution showed an inverse relationship with CpGi methylation, suggesting that CpGi hypermethylation drives low H3K27me3 in PF-ve ependymomas. Despite CpGi hypermethylation and global H3K27me3 reduction, these tumors showed DNA hypomethylation in the rest of the genome and exhibited increased H3K27me3 genomic enrichment at limited genomic loci similar to H3K27M mutant gliomas. Combined integrative analysis of PF-ve ependymomas with H3K27M gliomas uncovered common epigenetic deregulation of select factors that control radial glial biology, and PF radial glia in early human development exhibited reduced H3K27me3. Finally, H3K27me3 immunostaining served as a biomarker of poor prognosis and delineated radiologically invasive tumors, suggesting that reduced H3K27me3 may be a prognostic indicator in PF ependymomas.
Project description:A subset of genomically silent childhood posterior fossa ependymomas show reduced H3K27me3, global DNA hypomethylation, are more invasive, exhibit poor prognosis and epigenetically deregulated genes converge on radial glial factors, suggesting developing cerebellar radial glia as candidate cells-of-origin. Overall design: Quantification of CpG methylation in 3 ependymoma subtypes
Project description:No reliable classification is in clinical use for the therapeutic stratification of children with ependymoma, such that disease risk might be identified and patients treated to ensure a combination of maximal cure rates and minimal adverse therapeutic effects. This study has examined associations between clinicopathologic and cytogenetic variables and outcome in a trial cohort of children with ependymoma, with the aim of defining a practical scheme for stratifying this heterogeneous tumor. Intracranial ependymomas (n = 146) from children treated on the RT1 trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital were evaluated for the status of multiple pathological features. Interphase FISH (iFISH) defined the status of loci on chromosomes 1q (EXO1), 6q (LATS1) and 9, including 9p21 (CDKN2A). Data relating to these clinicopathological and cytogenetic variables were compared with survival data in order to model disease risk groups. Extent of surgical resection was a significant determinant of outcome in both supratentorial and infratentorial compartments. Tumor cell density and mitotic count were associated with outcome among children with posterior fossa ependymomas (n = 119). Among pathologic features, only brain invasion was associated with outcome in children with supratentorial ependymomas (n = 27). For posterior fossa tumors, gain of 1q was independently associated with outcome and in combination with clinicopathological variables defined both a two-tier and three-tier system of disease risk. Among children developing posterior fossa ependymomas treated with maximal surgical resection and conformal radiotherapy, key clinicopathological variables and chromosome 1q status can be used to define tiers of disease risk. In contrast, risk factors for pediatric supratentorial tumors are limited to sub-total resection and brain invasion.
Project description:We have discovered two major molecular subgroups of PFA molecular group posterior fossa ependymomas by DNA methylation profiling. These are also distinguished by gene expression profiling using Affymetrix U133v2 arrays with correspondence to data generated by DNA methylation profiling. Overall design: Total RNA from 39 ependymal tumor samples were hybridised to the Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays.
Project description:Posterior fossa ependymomas (EPN_PF) in children comprise two morphologically identical, but biologically distinct tumor entities. Group-A (EPN_PFA) tumors have a poor prognosis and require intensive therapy. In contrast, group-B tumors (EPN_PFB) exhibit excellent prognosis and the current consensus opinion recommends future clinical trials to test the possibility of treatment de-escalation in these patients. Therefore, distinguishing these two tumor subtypes is critical. EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB can be distinguished based on DNA methylation signatures, but these assays are not routinely available. We have previously shown that a subset of poorly prognostic childhood EPN_PF exhibits global reduction in H3K27me3. Therefore, we set out to determine whether a simple immunohistochemical assay for H3K27me3 could be used to segregate EPN_PFA from EPN_PFB tumors. We assembled a cohort of 230 childhood ependymomas and H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry was assessed as positive or negative in a blinded manner. H3K27me3 staining results were compared with DNA methylation-based subgroup information available in 112 samples [EPN_PFA (n = 72) and EPN_PFB tumors (n = 40)]. H3K27me3 staining was globally reduced in EPN_PFA tumors and immunohistochemistry showed 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity in segregating EPN_PFA from EPN_PFB tumors. Moreover, H3K27me3 immunostaining was sufficient to delineate patients with worse prognosis in two independent, non-overlapping cohorts (n = 133 and n = 97). In conclusion, immunohistochemical evaluation of H3K27me3 global reduction is an economic, easily available and readily adaptable method for defining high-risk EPN_PFA from low-risk posterior fossa EPN_PFB tumors to inform prognosis and to enable the design of future clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel epigenetic mark and may be involved in the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and malignant transformation. However, the role of 5hmC in ependymoma, the third most common brain tumor in children, remains unclear. The aim of this study sought to identify the characterization of 5hmC levels in pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma and to evaluate whether 5hmC levels could be a potential factor to predict clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Our results showed that 5hmC levels were globally decreased in posterior fossa ependymoma compared with normal cerebellum tissues (P < 0.001). Group A posterior fossa ependymomas had higher 5hmC levels than group B tumors (P = 0.007). Moreover, 5hmC levels positively correlated with Ki-67 index in posterior fossa ependymoma (r = 0.428, P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox hazards model revealed that patients with high 5hmC levels (>?0.102%) had worse PFS and OS than patients with lower 5hmC levels (<?0.102%) (PFS: HR = 3.014; 95% CI, 1.040-8.738; P = 0.042; OS: HR = 2.788; 95% CI, 0.974-7.982; P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that loss of 5hmC is an epigenetic hallmark for pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma. 5hmC levels may represent a potential biomarker to predict prognosis in children with posterior fossa ependymoma.