Involvement of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by ΔNp63 downregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma through activation of protease activated receptors
ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in cancer progression. Though we revealed that downregulation of ΔNp63 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) induces EMT, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. DNA microarray analyses were thus performed by using OSCC cell line overexpressing ΔNp63 to examine the genes associated with EMT. The results revealed that kallikrein related peptidase 6 (KLK6) was most upregulated in the OSCC cells overexpressing ΔNp63. Overall design: We obtained two newly established clones: SQUU-BO with constitutive expression of DNp63b and SQUU-BC transfected with empty vector. Then, Microarray was performed for comparison between gene expression of SQUU-BO and that of SQUU-BC.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-039494 SurePrint G3 Human GE v2 8x60K Microarray 039381 (Probe Name version)
Project description:Recent reports have revealed that EMT is involved in cancer invasion and progression including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we have also studied on the association of p63 gene, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, with EMT in OSCC cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that down-regulation of ΔNp63 accompanied with EMT and that re-expression of ΔNp63β by stable cDNA transfection in OSCC cell lines reverted the EMT phenotype. However, the detail mechanisms of ΔNp63β-mediated EMT remain to be unclear. Recent studies have shown that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are also involved in EMT process of human cancer by targeting EMT-related transcription factors. We thus sought to identify responsible miRNA associated with ΔNp63β-mediated EMT using miRNA microarray analyses. Overall design: As samples for miRNA microarray, we used two clones established from an OSCC cell line SQUU-B, which lacks ΔNp63 expression and displays EMT phenotypes. One is SQUU-BO cell overexpressing ΔNp63β, and another is SQUU-BC cell transfected with empty vector. In addition, SQUU-B EL cells with low expression of E-cadherin were also used to identify the miRNA associated with E-cadherin expression strongly.
Project description:Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) overexpression is commonly observed in primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and has been associated with tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and poor prognosis. We previously established a unique contribution of KLK6 in colon cancer metastasis via a specific network of microRNAs and mRNAs. Here we evaluated the cellular functions of KLK6 protease in Caco-2 colon adenocarcinoma cell line after introduction of the enzymatically active or inactive form of the enzyme. We found that proteolytically active KLK6 increased Caco-2 cells invasiveness in vitro and decreased the animal survival in the orthotopic colon cancer model. The active KLK6 induced phosphorylation of SMAD 2/3 proteins leading to the altered expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. KLK6 overexpression also induced the RNA-binding protein LIN28B and high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) transcription factor, two essential regulators of cell invasion and metastasis. In the CRC patients, KLK6 protein levels were elevated in the non-cancerous distant and adjacent tissues, compared to their paired tumor tissues (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0157, respectively). Patients with mutant K-RAS tumors had significantly higher level of KLK6 protein in the luminal surface of non-cancerous distant tissue, compared to the corresponding tissues of the patients with K-RAS wild type tumors (p ? 0.05). Furthermore, KLK6 and HMGA2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) scores in patients' tumors and paired adjacent tissues positively correlated (Spearman correlation P < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). These findings demonstrate the critical function of the KLK6 enzyme in colon cancer progression and its contribution to the signaling network in colon cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The human kallikrein-related peptidase family consists of 15 genes. Twelve of these genes are overexpressed in ovarian cancer and may represent potential markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and/or response to treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) and kallikrein-related peptidase 13 (KLK13) in epithelial ovarian cancer by quantifying gene expression levels with tumour pathology and patient survival data. METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from 106 patients diagnosed with primary ovarian cancer, as well as 8 normal ovary controls. Samples were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR for KLK6 and KLK13 expression. Correlation between kallikrein gene expression and clinical characteristics was evaluated with the chi(2)-test. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Expression levels of both KLK6 and KLK13 mRNA were significantly increased in invasive cancers relative to normal ovaries (P=0.002 and 0.039 respectively). High KLK6 and KLK13 expression was an indicator of poor prognosis, with patients having a shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.002 and 0.027 respectively). High KLK6 expression was also significantly associated with lower overall survival (P=0.011). When subjected to multivariate analysis, patients with either high KLK6 or KLK13 were 3- and 2.2-fold, respectively, more likely to have a recurrence than patients with low kallikrein expression. CONCLUSION: These data show increased mRNA expression of KLK6 and KLK13 in ovarian cancer compared to normal ovarian tissues. High KLK6 or KLK13 expression in primary ovarian tumours can significantly predict prognosis in terms of recurrence-free survival and overall survival. In all, this study shows KLK6 and KLK13 as potential biomarkers and may be therapeutic targets for treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Metastatic colon cancer is a major cause of deaths among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Elevated expression of kallikrein 6 (KLK6), a member of a kallikrein subfamily of peptidase S1 family serine proteases, has been reported in CRC and is associated with low patient survival rates and poor disease prognosis. We knocked down KLK6 expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells to determine the significance of KLK6 expression for metastatic dissemination and to identify the KLK6-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) signaling networks in metastatic colon cancer. KLK6 suppression resulted in decreased cells invasion in vitro with a minimal effect on the cell growth and viability. In vivo, animals with orthotopic colon tumors deficient in KLK6 expression had the statistically significant increase in survival rates (P=.005) and decrease in incidence of distant metastases. We further performed the integrated miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiling to identify functional miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with KLK6-mediated invasiveness of colon cancer. Through bioinformatics analysis we identified and functionally validated the top two up-regulated miRNAs, miR-182 and miR-203, and one down-regulated miRNA, miRNA-181d, and their seven mRNA effectors. The established miRNA-mRNA interactions modulate cellular proliferation, differentiation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in KLK6-expressing colon cancer cells via the TGF-? signaling pathway and RAS-related GTP-binding proteins. We confirmed the potential tumor suppressive properties of miR-181d and miR-203 in KLK6-expressing HCT116 cells using Matrigel invasion assay. Our data provide experimental evidence that KLK6 controls metastasis formation in colon cancer via specific downstream network of miRNA-mRNA effectors.
Project description:Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a serine protease normally expressed in mammary tissue and aberrantly regulated in breast cancer. At physiological levels, KLK6 functions as a suppressor of breast cancer, while its aberrant overexpression (> 50-fold higher than normal) is characteristic of a subset of breast cancers and has been linked to accelerated growth of primary breast tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency mice (Pampalakis et al. Cancer Res 2009, 69, 3779). Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the concentration-dependent functions of KLK6 by comparing MDA-MB-231 stable transfectants expressing increasing levels of KLK6 in in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity assays (soft agar, xenograft growth, tail vein metastasis). Quantitative proteomics was applied to identify proteins that are altered upon re-expression of KLK6 in MDA-MB-231 at normal or constitutive levels. Overexpression of KLK6 is associated with increased metastatic ability of breast cancer cells into lungs, increased expression of certain S100 proteins (S100A4, S100A11) and keratins (KRT), and downregulation of the apoptosis-related proteases CASP7 and CASP8, and RABs. On the other hand, KLK6 re-expression at physiological levels leads to inhibition of lung metastases associated with suppression of S100 proteins (S100A4, S100A10, S100A13, S100A16) and induced CASP7 and CASP8 expression. As this is the first report that KLK6 expression is associated with S100 proteins, caspases, RABs, and KRTs, we validated this finding in clinical datasets. By integrating proteomics and microarray data from breast cancer patients, we generated two composite scores, KLK6 + S100B-S100A7 and KLK6 + S100B-S100A14-S100A16, to predict long-term survival of breast cancer patients. We present previously unknown pathways implicating KLK6 in breast cancer. The findings promise to aid our understanding of the functional roles of KLK6 in breast cancer and may yield new biomarkers for the cancer types in which KLK6 is known to be aberrantly upregulated.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common and aggressive epithelial tumor in the head and neck region with a rising incidence. Despite the advances in basic science and clinical research, the overall survival rate of OSCC remains low. Thus finding novel effective therapeutic agents for OSCC is necessary. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of combined metformin and 4SC-202 in OSCC. Our results showed that metformin and 4SC-202 synergistically suppressed the proliferation and promoted the intrinsic apoptosis of OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 impeded the ΔNp63-decreasing effects after metformin and 4SC-202 treatment, indicating that metformin and 4SC-202 could promote the degradation of ΔNp63 protein. Moreover, ubiquitination level of ΔNp63 increased after metformin or/and 4SC-202 administration. Furthermore, we revealed that ΔNp63 mediated anticancer effects of metformin and 4SC-202, as overexpression or suppression of ΔNp63 could attenuate or facilitate the apoptosis rate of OSCC under metformin or/and 4SC-202 treatment. Collectively, metformin and 4SC-202 synergistically promote intrinsic apoptosis through accelerating ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ΔNp63 in OSCC, and this co-treatment can serve as a potential therapeutic scheme for OSCC.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process and critically contributes to treatment resistance, cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. Main objective of this study was to investigate the functional interaction between Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A)-related retinoic acid (RA) signaling as recent studies reported their impact on molecular features resembling EMT in several malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In HNSCC cell lines, we demonstrate that KLK6 is not only a downstream target of ALDH1A-related RA signaling, but also acts as an upstream regulator of ALDH1A3 expression. KLK6 and ALDH1A3 co-expression was confirmed in a mouse xenograft model and two independent HNSCC cohorts (HIPO-HNC and TCGA-HNC). KLK6 and ALDH1A3 co-expressed genes in HNSCC, which are also differentially expression in HNSCC cells with silenced KLK6 expression unraveled several subgroups of HNSCC patients with distinct histopathological and clinical features. In summary, our study highlights a new functional circuit with KLK6 and ALDH1A3 as key nodes and unraveled a gene expression signature, which predicts unfavorable prognosis in human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative HNSCC. Overall design: Two independent cultures (technical replicates) from three FaDu-shKLK6 clones and FaDu-mock controls, respectively, were used for global expression profiling on the Illumina HumanHT-12 V4.0 array platform. Generation and phenotypic characterization of FaDu-mock and FaDu-shKLK6 clones was described elsewhere (Schrader et al., Mol Cancer. 2015 May 20;14:107).
Project description:Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a secreted serine protease hypothesized to promote inflammation via cleavage of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR2. KLK6 levels are elevated in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, but no definitive role in pathogenesis has been established. Here, we show that skin-targeted overexpression of KLK6 causes generalized, severe psoriasiform dermatitis with spontaneous development of debilitating psoriatic arthritis-like joint disease. The psoriatic skin and joint phenotypes are reversed by normalization of skin KLK6 levels and attenuated following genetic elimination of PAR1 but not PAR2. Conservation of this regulatory pathway was confirmed in human psoriasis using vorapaxar, an FDA-approved PAR1 antagonist, on explanted lesional skin from patients with psoriasis. Beyond defining a critical role for KLK6/PAR1 signaling in promoting psoriasis, our results demonstrate that KLK6/PAR1-mediated inflammation in the skin alone is sufficient to drive inflammatory joint disease. Further, we identify PAR1 as a promising cytokine-independent target in therapy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) has been implicated in various types of cancer and in neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis. Further, anti-KLK6 antibodies attenuated disease manifestations in the mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Availability of specific antibodies against KLK6 is fundamental to the development of improved diagnostic and/or immunotherapeutic applications. Here, we exploited the enhanced immunogenicity of mammalian proteins in avian species to generate a polyclonal antibody against KLK6. RESULTS: Chicken were immunized with recombinant KLK6 and antibodies Y (IgYs) were purified from egg yolk with a simple procedure and evaluated for KLK6 detection by ELISA and Western blot using recombinant proteins and human cell lysates and supernatants. The anti-KLK6 Y polyclonal exhibited high affinity for KLK6 with a detection limit of 30 fmol. On the other hand, the widely used rabbit polyclonal antibody that was raised against the same recombinant KLK6 had a detection limit of 300 fmol. Moreover, the IgYs did not display any crossreactivity with recombinant KLKs or endogenous KLKs and other cellular proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Based on its high specificity and sensitivity the developed anti-KLK6 IgY is expected to aid the development of improved diagnostic tools for the detection of KLK6 in biological and clinical samples.
Project description:Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a biomarker of gastric cancer associated with poor prognosis. Mechanisms by which KLK6 could be exploited for chemotherapeutic use are unclear. We evaluated auranofin (AF), a compound with cytotoxic effects, in KLK6-deficient cells, and we investigated whether KLK6 expression induces autophagy and acquisition of drug resistance in gastric cancer. Using cultured human cells and a mouse xenograft model, we investigated how KLK6 affects antitumor-reagent-induced cell death and autophagy. Expression levels of KLK6, p53, and autophagy marker LC3B were determined in gastric cancer tissues. We analyzed the effects of knockdown/overexpression of KLK6, LC3B, and p53 on AF-induced cell death in cancer cells. Increased KLK6 expression in human gastric cancer tissues and cells inhibited AF-induced cell motility due to increased autophagy and p53 levels. p53 dependent induction of KLK6 expression increased autophagy and drug resistance, whereas KLK6 silencing decreased the autophagy level and increased drug sensitivity. During AF-induced cell death, KLK6 and LC3B colocalized to autophagosomes, associated with p53, and were then trafficked to the cytosol. In the xenograft model of gastric cancer, KLK6 expression decreased AF-induced cell death and KLK6-induced autophagy increased AF resistance. Taken together, the data suggest that the induction of autophagic processes through KLK6 expression may increase acquisition of resistance to AF. Our findings may contribute to a new paradigm for tumor therapeutics.