MiRNAs in adipose tissue derived exosomes (Exo-AT) and adipose stem cells derived exosomes (Exo-ADSCs)
ABSTRACT: The emerging evidences support that exosome cargo miRNAs function as important regulators in cell differentiation. Therefore, in order to figure out the mechanism that Exo-AT mediated adipogenesis, we profiled miRNAs in Exo-AT using high-throughput sequencing (miRNA-seq). After trimming low-quality reads, contaminants, adaptors, and reads smaller than 15 nt, the remaining reads were mapped to merged pre-miRNA data bases. To identify the conserved miRNAs in Exo exosomes, miRNAs were aligned to miRBase v21. 148 and 154 types of known miRNAs in Exo-ADSCs and Exo-AT, respectively, were identified in the two replicates. Among these miRNAs, 103 miRNAs were simultaneously detected in both Exo-ADSCs and Exo-AT. Compared to Exo-ADSCs, 45 conserved miRNAs were enriched (expressed ≥ 2 folds, FDR<0.05) in Exo-AT. KEGG Pathway analysis was performed for the targets of the most 20 enriched miRNAs in Exo-AT (compared with Exo-ADSCs) to determine their potential function. Data showed that pathways that regulate adipogenesis such as Wnt signaling pathway, Insulin signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, TGF-ß signaling pathway were enriched significantly for targets of Exo-AT miRNAs. Furthermore, 14 of 45 enriched miRNAs in Exo-AT (31.11%, such as miR-30a-5p, miR-148a-3p) were reported to participate in regulation of adipogenesis while 8 miRNAs (17.78%, such as miR-93-5p, miR-150-3p) that negatively control osteoblastic differentiation of MSC have been described. Overall design: Detection of miRNAs in Exo-AT and Exo-ADSCs
Project description:In this study, we investigated the effects of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the differentiation of rabbit corneal keratocytes. Keratocytes grown in 10% FBS differentiated into myofibroblasts by increasing HIPK2 kinase levels and activity. HIPK2 enhanced p53 and Smad3 pathways in FBS-induced keratocytes. Keratocytes grown in 10% FBS also showed increased levels of pro-fibrotic proteins, including collagen III, MMP9, fibronectin, and ?-SMA. These effects were reversed by knocking down HIPK2. Moreover, ADSCs and exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSCs-Exo) suppressed FBS-induced differentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts by inhibiting HIPK2. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that ADSCs-Exos were significantly enriched in miRNA-19a as compared to ADSCs. Targetscan and dual luciferase reporter assays confirmed that the HIPK2 3'UTR is a direct binding target of miR-19a. Keratocytes treated with 10% FBS and ADSCs-Exo-miR-19a-agomir or ADSCs-Exo-NC-antagomir showed significantly lower levels of HIPK2, phospho-Smad3, phospho-p53, collagen III, MMP9, fibronectin and ?-SMA than those treated with 10% FBS plus ADSCs-Exo-NC-agomir or ADSCs-Exo-miR-19a-antagomir. Thus, exosomal miR-19a derived from the ADSCs suppresses FBS-induced differentiation of rabbit corneal keratocytes into myofibroblasts by inhibiting HIPK2 expression. This suggests their potential use in the treatment of corneal fibrosis.
Project description:Background:Podocyte migration is actively involved in the process of podocyte loss and proteinuria production, which is closely associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-Exos) effectively inhibit podocyte apoptosis in the treatment of DN. However, how ADSCs-Exos affect the migration of podocytes is obscure. This study is aimed at exploring the regulatory role of ADSCs-Exos on cell migration and the underlying mechanism. Methods:ADSCs-Exo was authenticated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blotting, and flow cytometry. Cell viability and migration ability of podocytes were measured by CCK8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Relative expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The transmitting between PKH26-labeled exosome and podocytes was evaluated by IF assay. Dual luciferase reporter assay was employed to detect the relationship between miR-215-5p and ZEB2. Results:The exposure to serum from DN patient (hDN-serum) significantly inhibited cell viability of podocytes, but ADSCs-Exo addition notably blunts cytotoxicity induced by the transient stimulus of hDN-serum. Besides, ADSCs-Exo administration powerfully impeded high glucose- (HG-) induced migration and injury of podocyte. With the podocyte dysfunction, several miRNAs presented a significant decline under the treatment of HG including miR-251-5p, miR-879-5p, miR-3066-5p, and miR-7a-5p, all of which were rescued by the addition of ADSCs-Exo. However, only miR-251-5p was a key determinant in the process of ADSCs-Exo-mediated protective role on podocyte damage. The miR-251-5p inhibitor counteracted the improvement from the ADSCs-Exo preparation on HG-induced proliferation inhibition and migration promotion. Additionally, miR-215-5p mimics alone remarkably reversed HG-induced EMT process of podocyte. Mechanistically, we confirmed that ADSCs-Exos mediated the shuttling of miR-215-5p to podocyte, thereby protecting against HG-induced metastasis, possibly through inhibiting the transcription of ZEB2. Conclusion:ADSCs-Exo has the protective effect on HG-evoked EMT progression of podocytes thru a mechanism involving ZEB2. Potentially, the ADSCs-Exo preparation is a useful therapeutic strategy for improving podocyte dysfunction and DN symptoms clinically.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is confirmed that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation effectively relieves kidney fibrosis and type 2 diabetes disease in mice. Currently, exosome from urine-derived stem cells (USCs) can protect type 1 diabetes-mediated kidney injury and attenuate podocyte damage in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Exosome derived from USCs has evolved into the strategy for DN treatment, but the role of ADSCs-derived exosome (ADSCs-Exo) in DN remains unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the therapeutic action and molecular mechanism of ADSCs-derived exosome on DN. METHODS:ADSCs and exosome were authenticated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Morphology and the number of exosome were evaluated by electron microscope and Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA), respectively. Cell apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry. Podocyte autophagy and signaling transduction were measured by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Dual Luciferase Reporter assay was employed to detect the regulatory relationship between miR-486 and Smad1. RESULTS:ADSCs-Exo attenuated spontaneous diabetes by reducing levels of urine protein, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and podocyte apoptosis in mice. In in vitro experiment, ADSCs-Exo also reversed high glucose-induced decrease of cell viability and the increase of cell apoptosis in MPC5 cells. In terms of mechanism, ADSCs-Exo could enhance autophagy flux and reduce podocyte injury by inhibiting the activation of mTOR signaling in MPC5 and spontaneous diabetic mice. Eventually, we found that miR-486 was the key factors in ADSCs and in the process of ADSCs-Exo-mediated improvement of DN symptom in vivo and in vitro. miR-486 reduced Smad1 expression by target regulating Smad1 whose reduction could inhibit mTOR activation, leading to the increase of autophagy and the reduction of podocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, we illustrated that ADSCs-Exo vividly ameliorated DN symptom by enhancing the expression of miR-486 which led to the inhibition of Smad1/mTOR signaling pathway in podocyte. Possibly, ADSCs-Exo was used as a main therapeutic strategy for DN in future.
Project description:In the past few years, exosomes released from adipose-derived stem cells (abbreviated as ADSCs) have shown promises to provide therapeutic benefits in the fields of regenerative medicine. miRNAs, existing in exosomes, are endogenous, small noncoding RNAs that play important roles in a variety of cellular functions and tumor development. Emerging evidences have indicated that miR-21 is one of the important miRNAs associated with tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we identified the role of exosomes from ADSCs overexpressing miR-21 in regulating/promoting vascularization of endothelial cells. Experimental data indicated an elevated miR-21 level in exosomes released by ADSCs overexpressing miR-21. In vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay showed that exosomes secreted by ADSCs overexpressing miR-21 significantly promoted the vascularization of HUVEC cells (an endothelial cell line). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot (WB) revealed an upregulation of HIF-1?, VEGF, SDF-1, p-Akt, p-ERK1/2 and downregulation of PTEN in response to miR-21 overexpression, indicating that miR-21 enriched exosomes induced angiogenesis through Akt and ERK activation and also HIF-1? and SDF-1 expression. Our work suggests that exosomes from ADSCs that overexpressing miR-21 can potentially promote vascularization and therefore the transplantation of exosomes from their culture may be suitable for clinical effort in regenerative medicine.
Project description:Tumor genetics and escape from immune surveillance concur in the poor prognosis of PDAC. In this study an experimental model was set up to verify whether SMAD4, deleted in about 55% PDAC and associated with poor prognosis, is involved in determining immunosuppression through Exosomes (Exo). Potential mechanisms and mediators underlying SMAD4-dependent immunosuppression were evaluated by studying intracellular calcium (Fluo-4), Exo-miRNAs (microarray) and Exo-proteins (SILAC). Two PDAC cell lines expressing (BxPC3-SMAD4+) or not-expressing (BxPC3) SMAD4 were used to prepare Exo-enriched conditioned media, employed in experiments with blood donors PBMCs. Exo expanded myeloid derived suppressor cells (gMDSC and mMDSC, flow cytometry) and altered intracellular calcium fluxes in an SMAD4 dependent manner. BxPC3-SMAD4+, but mainly BxPC3 Exo, increased calcium fluxes of PBMCs (p = 0.007) and this increased intracellular calcium trafficking characterized mMDSCs. The analysis of de-regulated Exo-miRNAs and transfection experiments revealed hsa-miR-494-3p and has-miR-1260a as potential mediators of SMAD4-associated de-regulated calcium fluxes. Eleven main biological processes were identified by the analysis of SMAD4-associated de-regulated Exo-proteins, including translation, cell adhesion, cell signaling and glycolysis. A reverse Warburg effect was observed by treating PBMCs with PDAC-derived Exo: BxPC3 Exo induced a higher glucose consumption and lactate production than BxPC3-SMAD4+ Exo.PDAC-derived Exo from cells with, but mainly from those without SMAD4 expression, create an immunosuppressive myeloid cell background by increasing calcium fluxes and glycolysis through the transfer of SMAD4-related differentially expressed miRNAs and proteins.
Project description:Neurodegenerative diseases encompass a wide variety of pathological conditions caused by a loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and are severely debilitating. Exosome contains bio-signatures of great diagnostic and therapeutic value. There is proof that exosomal proteins can be biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). MicroRNAs in exosome has potential to be an important source of biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report exosomal microRNA performance of human plasma in neurodegenerative diseases by small RNA sequencing. A wide range of altered exo-miRNA expression levels were detected in both AD and PD patients. Down-regulated miRNAs in AD samples were enriched in ECM-receptor interaction pathway and both up-/down-regulated miRNAs in PD samples were enriched in fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Compared to the control, 8 miRNAs were found to be significantly elevated/declined in AD and PD samples, of which 4 miRNAs were newly identified. Additionally, two exosome isolating methods were compared and the reproducibility of plasma exo-miRNA expression was confirmed, suggesting the feasibility of large-scale clinical application of this method. This study revealed exo-miRNA expression levels in neurodegenerative diseases, proposed new biomarkers and their potential functional pathway for AD and PD, confirmed the reproductivity of exo-miRNA profiles by using a different exosome isolating method, and compared the results with plasma miRNA expression. Therefore, this study also provides a precedent for identifying exosomal biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases in plasma by high-throughput sequencing and it could extend the therapeutic repertoire of exosomal biomarkers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of tiny non-coding RNAs (approximately 22-24 nt) that regulate diverse biological processes at the posttranscriptional level by controlling mRNA stability or translation. As a molecular switch, the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway should be suppressed during the adipogenesis; However, activation of this pathway leads to the inhibition of lipid depots formation. The aim of our studies was to identify miRNAs that might be involved in adipogenesis by modulating WNT signaling pathway. Here we established two types of cell model, activation and repression of WNT signaling, and investigated the expression profile of microRNAs using microarray assay. RESULTS: The high throughput microarray data revealed 18 miRNAs that might promote adipogenesis by repressing WNT signaling: miR-210, miR-148a, miR-194, miR-322 etc. Meanwhile, we also identified 29 miRNAs that might have negative effect on adipogenesis by activating WNT signaling: miR-344, miR-27 and miR-181 etc. The targets of these miRNAs were also analysed by bioinformatics. To validate the predicted targets and the potential functions of these identified miRNAs, the mimics of miR-210 were transfected into 3T3-L1 cells and enlarged cells with distinct lipid droplets were observed; Meanwhile, transfection with the inhibitor of miR-210 could markedly decrease differentiation-specific factors at the transcription level, which suggested the specific role of miR-210 in promoting adipogenesis. Tcf7l2, the predicted target of miR-210, is a transcription factor triggering the downstream responsive genes of WNT signaling, was blocked at transcription level. Furthermore, the activity of luciferase reporter bearing Tcf7l2 mRNA 3' UTR was decreased after co-transfection with miR-210 in HEK-293FT cells. Last but not least, the protein expression level of beta-catenin was increased in the lithium (LiCl) treated 3T3-L1 cells after transfection with miR-210. These findings suggested that miR-210 could promote adipogenesis by repressing WNT signaling through targeting Tcf7l2. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the presence of miRNAs in two cell models, providing insights into WNT pathway-specific miRNAs that can be further characterized for their potential roles in adipogenesis. To our knowledge, present study represents the first attempt to unveil the profile of miRNAs involved in adipogenesis by modulating WNT signaling pathway, which contributed to deeper investigation of the mechanism of adipogenesis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as important regulators of stem cell lineage commitment and bone development. MiRNA-26a (miR-26a) is one of the important miRNAs regulating osteogenic differentiation of both bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, miR-26a functions oppositely in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs, suggesting distinct post-transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific MSC differentiation. However, the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here, we report that the function of miR-26a is largely depended on the intrinsic signaling regulation network of MSCs. Using bioinformatics and functional assay, we confirmed that miR-26a potentially targeted on GSK3? and Smad1 to regulate Wnt and BMP signaling pathway. Overall comparative analysis revealed that Wnt signaling was enhanced more potently and played a more important role than BMP signaling in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas BMP pathway was more essential for promoting osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. The distinct activation pattern and role of signaling pathways determined that miR-26a majorly targeted on GSK3? to activate Wnt signaling for promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas it inhibited Smad1 to suppress BMP signaling for interfering with the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Taken together, our study demonstrated that BMSCs and ADSCs applied different signaling pathway to facilitate their osteogenic differentiation, which determined the inverse function of miR-26a. The distinct transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation network suggested the intrinsic molecular differences between tissue-specific MSCs and the complexity in MSC research and MSC-based cell therapy.
Project description:Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a promising strategy in the treatment of ?-thalassemia major (?-TM). The present study shows that plasma exosomal miRNAs (exo-miRs) are involved in ?-globin regulation. Exosomes shuttle miRNAs and mediate cell-cell communication. MiRNAs are regulators of biological processes through post-transcriptional targeting. Compared to HD (Healthy Donor), ?-TM patients showed increased levels of plasma exosomes and the majority of exosomes had cellular origin from CD34+ cells. Further, HD and ?-TM exosomes showed differential miRNA expressions. Among them, deregulated miR-223-3p and miR-138-5p in ?-TM exosomes and HD had specific targets for ?-globin regulator and repressor respectively. Functional studies in K562 cells showed that HD exosomes and miR-138-5p regulated ?-globin expression by targeting BCL11A. ?-TM exosomes and miR-223-3p down regulated ?-globin expression through LMO2 targeting. Importantly, miR-223-3p targeting through sponge repression resulted in ?-globin activation. Further, hnRNPA1 bound to stem-loop structure of pre-miR-223 and we found that hnRNPA1 knockdown or mutagenesis at miR-223-3p stem-loop sequence resulted in less mature exo-miR-223-3p levels. Altogether, the study shows for the first time on the important clinical evidence that differentially expressed exo-miRNAs reciprocally control ?-globin expressions. Further, the hnRNPA1-exo-miR-223-LMO2 axis may be critical to ?-globin silencing in ?-TM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes derived from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be used as biomimetic tools to induce odontogenic differentiation of stem cells, but the regulatory mechanisms and functions of exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are still unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the role of microRNAs contained in the exosomes derived from human DPSCs and their potential signaling cascade in odontogenic differentiation. METHODS:Exosomes were isolated from human DPSCs cultured undergrowth and odontogenic differentiation conditions, named UN-Exo and OD-Exo, respectively. The microRNA sequencing was performed to explore the microRNA profile contained in UN-Exo and OD-Exo. Pathway analysis was taken to detect enriched pathways associated with the predicted target genes of microRNAs. The regulatory roles of a highly expressed microRNA in OD-Exo were investigated through its inhibition or overexpression (miRNA inhibitors and miRNA mimics). Automated western blot was used to identify the function of exosomal microRNA and the roles of TGFβ1/smads pathway in odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify the direct target gene of exosomal miR-27a-5p. RESULTS:Endocytosis of OD-Exo triggered odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs by upregulating DSP, DMP-1, ALP, and RUNX2 proteins. MicroRNA sequencing showed that 28 microRNAs significantly changed in OD-Exo, of which 7 increased and 21 decreased. Pathway analysis showed genes targeted by differentially expressed microRNAs were involved in multiple signal transductions, including TGFβ pathway. 16 genes targeted by 15 differentially expressed microRNAs were involved in TGFβ signaling. Consistently, automated western blot found that OD-Exo activated TGFβ1 pathway by upregulating TGFβ1, TGFR1, p-Smad2/3, and Smad4 in DPSCs. Accordingly, once the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was inhibited by SB525334, protein levels of p-Smad2/3, DSP, and DMP-1 were significantly decreased in DPSCs treated with OD-Exo. MiR-27a-5p was expressed 11 times higher in OD-Exo, while miR-27a-5p promoted odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs and significantly upregulated TGFβ1, TGFR1, p-Smad2/3, and Smad4 by downregulating the inhibitory molecule LTBP1. CONCLUSIONS:The microRNA expression profiles of exosomes derived from DPSCs were identified. OD-Exo isolated under odontogenic conditions were better inducers of DPSC differentiation. Exosomal microRNAs promoted odontogenic differentiation via TGFβ1/smads signaling pathway by downregulating LTBP1.