Metagenomic analysis revealed the microbial-mediated soil organic carbon loss under the degeneration succession in alpine meadow
ABSTRACT: Land cover change has long been recognized that marked effect the amount of soil organic carbon. However, little is known about microbial-mediated effect processes and mechanism on soil organic carbon. In this study, the soil samples in a degenerated succession from alpine meadow to alpine steppe meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degenerated, were analyzed by using GeoChip functional gene arrays. Overall design: soil microbial functional gene diversity; 20 samples were collected from alpine meadow and alpine-steppe meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan, China, with 10 replicates in every site
Project description:Global warming substantially changes precipitation patterns in the Tibetan plateau, with projection of increased precipitation in southern and northern Tibet but decreased precipitation in the center. Understanding mechanisms of such changes in greenhouse gas emissions is of vital importance in predicting ecosystem feedbacks to climate changes. Nonetheless, it has been hampered by limited knowledge in soil microbial communities, one of the major drivers of greenhouse gas emission. Here, we report a field experiment simulating drying and wetting conditions in the Tibetan grassland. Our field site is located at the Haibei Alpine Grassland Ecosystem Research Station in the northeast of Tibet Plateau, China, and we employed GeoChip 5.0 180K to analyze microbial responses. 18 samples were collected from 3 plots in Haibei Station, with 6 replicates in each plot
Project description:Tibet is one of the most threatened regions by climate warming, thus understanding how its microbial communities function may be of high importance for predicting microbial responses to climate changes. Here, we report a study to profile soil microbial structural genes, which infers functional roles of microbial communities, aiming to explore potential microbial responses to climate changes via a strategy of space-for-time substitution. Using a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 4.0, we showed that microbial communities were distinct for most but not all of the sites. Substantial variations were apparent in stress, N and C cycling genes, but they were in line with the functional roles of these genes. sixty-three samples were collected from four elevations (3200,3400,3600 and 3800 m) along a Tibetan alpine meadow; Three replicates in each treatment
Project description:Aeolian soil erosion, exacerbated by anthropogenic perturbations, has become one of the most alarming processes of land degradation and desertification. By contrast, dust deposition might confer a potential fertilization effect. To examine how they affect topsoil microbial community, we conducted a study GeoChip techniques in a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. We found that microbial communities were significantly (P<0.039) altered and most of microbial functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium cycling were decreased or remained unaltered in relative abundance by both erosion and deposition, which might be attributed to acceleration of organic matter mineralization by the breakdown of aggregates during dust transport and deposition. As a result, there were strong correlations between microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes. amyA genes encoding alpha-amylases were significantly (P=0.01) increased by soil deposition, reflecting changes of carbon profiles. Consistently, plant abundance, total nitrogen and total organic carbon were correlated with functional gene composition, revealing the importance of environmental nutrients to soil microbial function potentials. Collectively, our results identified microbial indicator species and functional genes of aeolian soil transfer, and demonstrated that functional genes had higher susceptibility to environmental nutrients than taxonomy. Given the ecological importance of aeolian soil transfer, knowledge gained here are crucial for assessing microbe-mediated nutrient cyclings and human health hazard. The experimental sites comprised of three treatments of control, soil erosion and deposition, with 5 replicates of each treatment.
Project description:The response of soil microbial community to climate warming through both function shift and composition reorganization may profoundly influence global nutrient cycles, leading to potential significant carbon release from the terrain to the atmosphere. Despite the observed carbon flux change in northern permafrost, it remains unclear how soil microbial community contributes to this ecosystem alteration. Here, we applied microarray-based GeoChip 4.0 to investigate the functional and compositional response of subsurface (15~25cm) soil microbial community under about one year’s artificial heating (+2°C) in the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research site on Alaska’s moist acidic tundra. Statistical analyses of GeoChip signal intensities showed significant microbial function shift in AK samples. Detrended correspondence analysis and dissimilarity tests (MRPP and ANOSIM) indicated significant functional structure difference between the warmed and the control communities. ANOVA revealed that 60% of the 70 detected individual genes in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur cyclings were substantially increased (p<0.05) by heating. 18 out of 33 detected carbon degradation genes were more abundant in warming samples in AK site, regardless of the discrepancy of labile or recalcitrant C, indicating a high temperature sensitivity of carbon degradation genes in rich carbon pool environment. These results demonstrated a rapid response of northern permafrost soil microbial community to warming. Considering the large carbon storage in northern permafrost region, microbial activity in this region may cause dramatic positive feedback to climate change, which is important and necessary to be integrated into climate change models. Overall design: A total of 12 soil samples were analyzed for functional genes of microbial communities. The soil samples include soil warming treatment and control with six biological replicates. Please note that the *532.exp.ftr files recorded intensities of targeted spots, and *532.void.ftr files were intensities of the areas between two adjacent targeted spots, which were used as background intensity (noise) in the normalization step in GeoChip.
Project description:Samples of oil and production water were collected from five wells of the Qinghai Oilfield, China, and subjected to GeoChip hybridization experiments for microbial functional diversity profiling. Unexpectedly, a remarkable microbial diversity in oil samples, which was higher than that in the corresponding water samples, was observed, thus challenging previously believed assumptions about the microbial diversity in this ecosystem. Hierarchical clustering separated oil and water samples, thereby indicating distinct functional structures in the samples. Genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons, organic remediation, stress response, and carbon cycling were significantly abundant in crude oil, which is consistent with their important roles in residing in oil. Association analysis with environmental variables suggested that oil components comprising aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and a polar fraction with nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compounds were mainly influential on the structure of the microbial community. Furthermore, a comparison of microbial communities in oil samples indicated that the structures were depth/temperature-dependent. To our knowledge, this is the first thorough study to profile microbial functional diversity in crude oil samples. From the Qinghai Oilfield located in the Tibetan Plateau, northwest China, oil production mixtures were taken from four oil production wells (No. 813, 516, 48 and 27) and one injection well (No. 517) in the Yue-II block. The floating oil and water phases of the production mixtures were separated overnight by gravitational separation. Subsequently, the microbial community and the characteristics of the water solution (W813, W516, W48, and W27) and floating crude oil (O813, O516, O48, and O27) samples were analyzed. A similar analysis was performed with the injection water solution (W517).
Project description:Tibet is one of the most threatened regions by climate warming, thus understanding how its microbial communities function may be of high importance for predicting microbial responses to climate changes. Here, we report a study to profile soil microbial structural genes, which infers functional roles of microbial communities, along four sites/elevations of a Tibetan mountainous grassland, aiming to explore potential microbial responses to climate changes via a strategy of space-for-time substitution. Using a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 4.0, we showed that microbial communities were distinct for most but not all of the sites. Substantial variations were apparent in stress, N and C cycling genes, but they were in line with the functional roles of these genes. Cold shock genes were more abundant at higher elevations. Also, gdh converting ammonium into urea was more abundant at higher elevations while ureC converting urea into ammonium was less abundant, which was consistent with soil ammonium contents. Significant correlations were observed between N-cycling genes (ureC, gdh and amoA) and nitrous oxide flux, suggesting that they contributed to community metabolism. Lastly, we found by CCA, Mantel tests and the similarity tests that soil pH, temperature, NH4+–N and vegetation diversity accounted for the majority (81.4%) of microbial community variations, suggesting that these four attributes were major factors affecting soil microbial communities. Based on these observations, we predict that climate changes in the Tibetan grasslands are very likely to change soil microbial community functional structure, with particular impacts on microbial N cycling genes and consequently microbe-mediated soil N dynamics. Twelve samples were collected from four elevations (3200, 3400, 3600 and 3800 m) along a Tibetan grassland; Three replicates in every elevation
Project description:To study whether and how soil nitrogen conditions affect the ecological effects of long-term elevated CO2 on microbial community and soil ecoprocess, here we investigated soil microbial community in a grassland ecosystem subjected to ambient CO2 (aCO2, 368 ppm), elevated CO2 (eCO2, 560 ppm), ambient nitrogen deposition (aN) or elevated nitrogen deposition (eN) treatments for a decade. Under the aN condition, a majority of microbial function genes, as measured by GeoChip 4.0, were increased in relative abundance or remained unchanged by eCO2. Under the eN condition, most of functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, energy processes, organic remediation and stress responses were decreased or remained unchanged by eCO2, while genes associated with antibiotics and metal resistance were increased. The eCO2 effects on fungi and archaea were largely similar under both nitrogen conditions, but differed substantially for bacteria. Coupling of microbial carbon or nitrogen cycling genes, represented by positive percentage and density of gene interaction in association networks, was higher under the aN condition. In accordance, changes of soil CO2 flux, net N mineralization, ammonification and nitrification was higher under the aN condition. Collectively, these results demonstrated that eCO2 effects are contingent on nitrogen conditions, underscoring the difficulty toward predictive modeling of soil ecosystem and ecoprocesses under future climate scenarios and necessitating more detailed studies. Fourty eight samples were collected for four different carbon and nitrogen treatment levels (aCaN,eCaN,aCeN and eCeN) ; Twelve replicates in every elevation
Project description:Microbial decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Arctic permafrost is one of the most important, but poorly understood, factors in determining the greenhouse gas feedback of tundra ecosystems to climate. Here, we examine changes in the structure of microbial communities in an anoxic incubation experiment at either –2 or 8 °C for up to 122 days using both an organic and a mineral soil collected from the Barrow Environmental Observatory in northern Alaska, USA. Soils were characterized for SOC and geochemistry, and GeoChips 5.0 were used to determine microbial community structure and functional genes associated with C availability and Fe(III) reduction. Overall design: 30 samples were collected under 10 conditions from Barrow, Alaska, with 3 replicates in each treatment
Project description:Anaerobic digestion is a popular and effective microbial process for waste treatment. The performance of anaerobic digestion processes is contingent on the balance of the microbial food web in utilizing various substrates. Recently, co-digestion, i.e., supplementing the primary substrate with an organic-rich co-substrate has been exploited to improve waste treatment efficiency. Yet the potential effects of elevated organic loading on microbial functional gene community remains elusive. In this study, functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was used to assess the response of microbial community to the addition of poultry waste in anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure. Consistent with 16S rRNA gene sequences data, GeoChip data showed that microbial community compositions were significantly shifted in favor of copiotrophic populations by co-digestion, as taxa with higher rRNA gene copy number such as Bacilli were enriched. The acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina was also enriched, while Methanosaeta was unaltered but more abundant than Methanosarcina throughout the study period. The microbial functional diversity involved in anaerobic digestion were also increased under co-digestion. Overall design: There were two sets of anaerobic digesters. Three control digesters were fed with dairy manure and the organic loading rate kept constant. The three treatment digesters were fed with poultry waste in addition to dairy manure, resulting in step-wise increase in the organic loading rate. Sludge samples were taken at different time points from the six digesters.
Project description:Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Important functional genes, which characterize the rhizosphere microbial community, were identified to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using GeoChip 3.0-based functional gene array method. Triplicate samples were taken for both rhizosphere and bulk soil, in which each individual sample was a pool of four plants or soil cores. To determine the abundance of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils, GeoChip 3.0 was used.