HIF Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle from Contraction-Induced Injury
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle has an impressive ability to repair itself after a damaging insult and this response is essential to the process of muscle adaptation. In conditions such as muscular dystrophy and the sarcopenia of old age, repair is compromised leading to fibrosis and fatty tissue accumulation. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are highly conserved regulators of gene transcription under conditions of low oxygen tension and HIF target genes such as EPO and VEGF have been associated with muscle protection and repair. We sought to interrogate the importance of HIF activation to skeletal muscle repair through the use of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHI) that stabilize HIF and activate target gene transcription in a mouse eccentric exercise limb damage model. We used microarrays to detail the global effects of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHI) in a mouse eccentric exercise limb damage model. Overall design: Normal C57Bl6/NJ mice were housed individually and fed standard chow and water ad libitum. Right hind limbs were injured while left hind limbs were used as control. Animals were treated either with PHI or vehicle. Gastrocnemius samples were collected after 3 hrs, 6hrs, and 9hrs, respectively.
Project description:Diabetes is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases that are associated with impaired angiogenesis or increased endothelial cell apoptosis. Here is it shown that angiogenic repair of ischemic hind limbs was impaired in Lepr db/db mice, a leptin receptor deficient model of diabetes, compared to wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice as evaluated by laser Doppler flow and capillary density analyses. To identify molecular targets associated with this disease process, hind limb cDNA expression profiles were created from adductor muscle of Lepr db/db and WT mice before and after hind limb ischemia using Affymetrix GeneChip® Mouse Expression Set microarrays. The expression patterns of numerous angiogenesis related proteins were altered in Lepr db/db versus WT mice following ischemic injury. These transcripts included neuropilin-1, VEGF-A, placental growth factor, elastin and matrix metalloproteinases that are implicated in blood vessel growth and maintenance of vessel wall integrity. These data illustrate that impaired ischemia-induced neovascularization in type 2 diabetes is associated with the dysregulation of a complex angiogenesis-regulatory network. Keywords: Diabetes, ischemia, angiogenesis, microarrays Overall design: Gene expression data for adductor muscle in the ischemic limb from wild type mice and Lepr db/db mice of 4 time points (before hind limb ischemia, 1 day, 7 days and 14 days after hind limb ischemia surgery). Three independent experimental replicates of each condition for each time point.
Project description:Rodent hind limb unloading was used as a model for reduced muscle activity and eventual atrophy. After a 10 day period of unloading, mice in this study were “reloaded” for 3 days and regained use of their hind limbs. We report the application of Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for high-throughput profiling of mRNA in soleus muscle of adult (6 mo) and aged (22-24 mo) mice. Our goal was to determine the effects of hind limb unloading and reloading on mRNA profiles in soleus muscle and compare between adult and aged mice. We find that there are distinct response in the profile of fatty acid oxidation, TCA cycle, ETC oxidative phosphorylation gene expression patterns in response to unloading and reloading. The repsonses are generally simialr between young and old mice. Overall design: RNA-Seq was performed with total RNA isolated from snap frozen soleus muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice (Adult 6 mo and Old 22-24 mo) were obtained from the NIA's Aged Rodent Colony Charles River Laboratories, Madison, WI) and were subjected to the following experimental conditions: 1) hind limb unloaded for 10 days, 2) hind limb unloaded for 10 days and reloaded for 3 days, or 3) maintained under control conditions for 10 days. Mice were fed ad libitum with a standard chow diet (#2916, Harlan-Teklad, Houston, Tx) and water/hydrogel (ClearH2O, Westbrook, ME, US) and housed at 22C with a 12-h light/dark cycle. All soleus samples were harvested following a 4 hour fast and mice were sacrificed at ~11am by CO2 asphyxiation and cervical dislocation.
Project description:Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory networks underlying development and the various signal transduction pathways contributing to morphogenesis. Here, we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early murine limb development, when cartilage, tendons, muscle, joints, vasculature, and nerves are specified and the musculoskeletal system of the limbs is established. We used whole-genome microarrays to identify genes with differential expression at 5 stages of limb development (E9.5 to 13.5), during fore-limb and hind-limb patterning. We found that the onset of limb formation is characterized by an up-regulation of transcription factors, which is followed by a massive activation of genes during E10.5 and E11.5 which tampers off at later time points. Among 3520 genes identified as significantly up-regulated in the limb, we find ~30% to be novel, dramatically expanding the repertoire of candidate genes likely to function in the limb. Hierarchical and stage-specific clustering identified expression profiles that correlate with functional programs during limb development and are likely to provide new insights into specific tissue patterning processes. Here we provide for the first time, a comprehensve analysis of developmentally regulated genes during murine limb development, and provide some novel insights into the expression dynamics governing limb morphogenesis. Fifty- one arrays were analyzed, consisting of whole fore-limb and hind-limb bud RNA (experimental) and whole embryo RNA (reference) samples from E9.5 to E13.5 DPC mouse (FVB strain). Embryos were not pooled to generate samples. Each time point has 3 to 5 biological replicates for limb bud samples, duplicates for whole embryos. Comparisons were made between limb bud samples and whole embryo at the same stage, fore-limb samples of different stages, hind-limb samples of different stages, and fore-limb samples compared to hind-limb samples at the same or the next stage.
Project description:We set out to characterize the gene expression changes which take place during chondrogenesis in the developing mouse limb. RNA derived from pre-condensed mesenchyme, mesenchymal condensations, and cartilage anlagen representing the earliest stages of tibial and fibular development was analysed by whole genome microarray analysis, and revealed 931 genes differentially expressed in these tissues. Among them were 892 genes not previously identified during the initation of chondrogenesis, including members of the Bmp, Wnt, Gdf, Sox, and Fox gene families. These microarray data were validated by qPCR, in situ hybridisation, and analysis of numerous genes already implicated in chondrogenesis in the scientific literature. 231 sections from a total of four 11.5dpc mouse hind limbs, three 12.5dpc mouse hind limbs, and four 13.5dpc mouse hind limbs (all from separate mice) were microdissected, and tissues from each time point were pooled. Thus, this experiment consisted of one replicate only.
Project description:Variation among individuals is a prerequisite of evolution by natural selection. As such, identifying the origins of variation is a fundamental goal of biology. We investigated the link between gene interactions and variation in gene expression among individuals and species, using the mammalian limb as a model system. We first built interaction networks for key genes regulating early (outgrowth; E9.5-11) and late (expansion and elongation; E11-13) limb development in mouse. This resulted in an Early (ESN) and Late (LSN) Stage Network. Computational perturbations of these networks suggest that the ESN is more robust. We then quantified levels of the same key genes among mouse individuals, and found that they vary less at earlier limb stages and that variation in gene expression is heritable. Finally, we quantified variation in gene expression levels among four mammals with divergent limbs (bat, opossum, mouse and pig), and found that levels vary less among species at earlier limb stages. We also found that variation in gene expression levels among individuals and species are correlated for earlier and later limb development. In conclusion, results are consistent with the robustness of the ESN buffering among-individual variation in gene expression levels early in mammalian limb development, and constraining the evolution of early limb development among mammalian species. Bat, mouse, opossum, and pig mRNA profiles at early and late developmental stages on each species fore and hind-limbs . Various replicates of each library were generated by single-end sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2500. Please note that the De novo transcriptome assembly for bat (Trinity.fasta) was generated from pooled RNA-seq data of fore and hind-limbs at various embryonic developmental stages; Beginning stage (Wanek stage 2: 3 FL and 3 HL samples), early-stage (Wanek stage 3/4: 2 FL and 2 HL samples), and late_stage (Wanke stage 6: 2 FL and 2 HL samples).
Project description:The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) system orchestrates cellular responses to hypoxia in animals. HIF is an /-heterodimeric transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes in a context dependent manner. A hypoxia-sensing component of the HIF system involves oxygen-dependent catalysis by the HIF hydroxylases; in humans there are three HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). PHD catalysis regulates HIF levels and FIH catalysis regulates HIF activity. How differences in HIF hydroxylation status relate to variations in the induction of HIF target gene transcription is unknown. We report studies using small molecule inhibitors of the HIF hydroxylases to investigate the extent to which HIF target gene upregulation is induced by reduced PHD catalysis. The results reveal substantial differences in the role of prolyl- and asparaginyl-hydroxylation in regulating hypoxia responsive genes in cells. Selective PHD inhibitors with different structural scaffolds behave similarly. However, under the tested conditions, a broad-spectrum 2OG dioxygenase inhibitor is a better mimic of the transcriptional response to hypoxia than the selective PHD inhibitors, consistent with an important role for FIH in the hypoxic transcriptional response. Indeed, combined application of selective PHD and FIH inhibitors resulted in transcriptional induction of a subset of genes that were not fully responsive to PHD inhibition alone. Thus, for the therapeutic regulation of HIF target genes, it is important to consider both PHD and FIH activity, and in the case of some sets of target genes, simultaneous inhibition of the PHDs and FIH catalysis may be preferable.
Project description:The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) system orchestrates cellular responses to hypoxia in animals. HIF is an α/β-heterodimeric transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes in a context dependent manner. A hypoxia-sensing component of the HIF system involves oxygen-dependent catalysis by the HIF hydroxylases; in humans there are three HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). PHD catalysis regulates HIFα levels and FIH catalysis regulates HIF activity. How differences in HIFα hydroxylation status relate to variations in the induction of HIF target gene transcription is unknown. We report studies using small molecule inhibitors of the HIF hydroxylases to investigate the extent to which HIF target gene upregulation is induced by reduced PHD catalysis. The results reveal substantial differences in the role of prolyl- and asparaginyl-hydroxylation in regulating hypoxia responsive genes in cells. Selective PHD inhibitors with different structural scaffolds behave similarly. However, under the tested conditions, a broad-spectrum 2OG dioxygenase inhibitor is a better mimic of the transcriptional response to hypoxia than the selective PHD inhibitors, consistent with an important role for FIH in the hypoxic transcriptional response. Indeed, combined application of selective PHD and FIH inhibitors resulted in transcriptional induction of a subset of genes that were not fully responsive to PHD inhibition alone. Thus, for the therapeutic regulation of HIF target genes, it is important to consider both PHD and FIH activity, and in the case of some sets of target genes, simultaneous inhibition of the PHDs and FIH catalysis may be preferable.
Project description:With the aim of finding small molecules that stimulate erythropoiesis earlier than erythropoietin and that enhance CFU-E production, we studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids increase CFU-E formation. Using BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors purified by a new technique, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids stimulate the earliest (BFU-E) progenitors to undergo limited self-renewal, which increases formation of CFU-E cells > 20-fold. Interestingly, glucocorticoids induce expression of genes in BFU-E cells that contain promoter regions highly enriched for hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF1a) binding sites. This suggests activation of HIF1a may enhance or replace the effect of glucocorticoids on BFU-E self-renewal. Indeed, HIF1a activation by a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) synergizes with glucocorticoids and enhances production of CFU-Es 170-fold. Since PHIs are able to increase erythroblast production at very low concentrations of glucocorticoids, PHI-induced stimulation of BFU-E progenitors thus represents a conceptually new therapeutic window for treating Epo-resistant anemia. RNA-Seq was performed on enriched populations of BFU-E, CFU-E and Ter119+ as well as BFU-E enriched cells treated with Dex and DMOG
Project description:Hypoxia results in the changes in expression of many genes, the majority of which are mediated via the transcriptional activity of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) complex. However, other mechanisms of gene regulation by hypoxia are likely and include control of mRNA stability, regulation of mRNA translation and regulation mediated by micrornas. The aim of this study is to identify microRNAs which expression is regulated by hypoxia. We chose the breast cancer line MCF7 for study as we had previously characterised the expression of the components of the HIF system in that cell line and undertaken an extensive study of the gene expression profile in response to hypoxia, a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine and HIF-1a isoform manipulations (Eldvidge. G.P. et al. (2006) JBC, vol. 281, 22, 15215-15226).