Analysis of gene expression in the skin of mice under high-fat diet regimen following topical association with Corynebacterium accolens.
ABSTRACT: The resident skin microbiota plays a fundamental role in the control of skin physiology and growing evidence support the idea that, at this barrier site, both immunity and inflammatory processes are controlled by skin resident microbiota. However, how defined skin microbes influence the skin immune system under both steady state conditions and inflammatory settings remains poorly understood. Obesity has been linked to increased prevalence of skin inflammatory disorders. We used microarray analysis to investigate how Corynebacterium spp., dominant members of the skin microbiota of mice and humans, influence gene expression in the skin in mice under normal diet or a high-fat diet regimen. Overall design: Three weeks-old mice were placed under a high-fat diet regimen (60% total calories from fat) or a control diet regimen (10% total calories from fat) for a month and then topically associated on their skin with the bacterium Corynebacterium accolens. Some mice were left unassociated. The experiment had four groups of 5 mice: control diet unassociated; control diet associated with C. accolens; high fat diet unassociated; high fat diet associated with C. accolens. Two weeks after topical association, the ear pinnae of each mouse was collected and placed in RNA later.
Project description:Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by a decrease in energy expenditure beyond that accounted for by reduced body mass and composition, as well as by an increased drive to eat. These effects appear to be due--in part--to reductions in circulating leptin concentrations due to loss of body fat. Gut microbiota have been implicated in the regulation of body weight. The effects of weight loss on qualitative aspects of gut microbiota have been studied in humans and mice, but these studies have been confounded by concurrent changes in diet composition, which influence microbial community composition. We studied the impact of 20% weight loss on the microbiota of diet-induced obese (DIO: 60% calories fat) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Weight-reduced DIO (DIO-WR) mice had the same body weight and composition as control (CON) ad-libitum (AL) fed mice being fed a control diet (10% calories fat), allowing a direct comparison of diet and weight-perturbation effects. Microbial community composition was assessed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes derived from the ceca of sacrificed animals. There was a strong effect of diet composition on the diversity and composition of the microbiota. The relative abundance of specific members of the microbiota was correlated with circulating leptin concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammation markers in subcutaneous white adipose tissue in all mice. Together, these results suggest that both host adiposity and diet composition impact microbiota composition, possibly through leptin-mediated regulation of mucus production and/or inflammatory processes that alter the gut habitat.
Project description:How defined microbes influence the skin immune system remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Corynebacteria, dominant members of the skin microbiota, promote a dramatic increase in the number and activation of a defined subset of ?? T cells. This effect is long-lasting, occurs independently of other microbes, and is, in part, mediated by interleukin (IL)-23. Under steady-state conditions, the impact of Corynebacterium is discrete and noninflammatory. However, when applied to the skin of a host fed a high-fat diet, Corynebacterium accolens alone promotes inflammation in an IL-23-dependent manner. Such effect is highly conserved among species of Corynebacterium and dependent on the expression of a dominant component of the cell envelope, mycolic acid. Our data uncover a mode of communication between the immune system and a dominant genus of the skin microbiota and reveal that the functional impact of canonical skin microbial determinants is contextually controlled by the inflammatory and metabolic state of the host.
Project description:The "Western diet" is characterized by increased intake of saturated and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with a relative reduction in omega-3 (n-3) consumption. These fatty acids can directly and indirectly modulate the gut microbiome, resulting in altered host immunity. Omega-3 fatty acids can also directly modulate immunity through alterations in the phospholipid membranes of immune cells, inhibition of n-6 induced inflammation, down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, and by serving as pre-cursors to anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as resolvins and protectins. We have previously shown that consumption by breeder mice of diets high in saturated and n-6 fatty acids have inflammatory and immune-modulating effects on offspring that are at least partially driven by vertical transmission of altered gut microbiota. To determine if parental diets high in n-3 fatty acids could also affect offspring microbiome and immunity, we fed breeding mice an n-3-rich diet with 40% calories from fat and measured immune outcomes in their offspring. We found offspring from mice fed diets high in n-3 had altered gut microbiomes and modestly enhanced anti-inflammatory IL-10 from both colonic and splenic tissue. Omega-3 pups were protected during peanut oral allergy challenge with small but measurable alterations in peanut-related serologies. However, n-3 pups displayed a tendency toward worsened responses during E. coli sepsis and had significantly worse outcomes during Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Our results indicate excess parental n-3 fatty acid intake alters microbiome and immune response in offspring.
Project description:While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.
Project description:The dynamics of the tripartite relationship between the host, gut bacteria and diet in the gut is relatively unknown. An imbalance between harmful and protective gut bacteria, termed dysbiosis, has been linked to many diseases and has most often been attributed to high-fat dietary intake. However, we recently clarified that the type of fat, not calories, were important in the development of murine colitis. To further understand the host-microbe dynamic in response to dietary lipids, we fed mice isocaloric high-fat diets containing either milk fat, corn oil or olive oil and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the colon microbiome and mass spectrometry-based relative quantification of the colonic metaproteome. The corn oil diet, rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, increased the potential for pathobiont survival and invasion in an inflamed, oxidized and damaged gut while saturated fatty acids promoted compensatory inflammatory responses involved in tissue healing. We conclude that various lipids uniquely alter the host-microbe interaction in the gut. While high-fat consumption has a distinct impact on the gut microbiota, the type of fatty acids alters the relative microbial abundances and predicted functions. These results support that the type of fat are key to understanding the biological effects of high-fat diets on gut health.
Project description:The contributions of maternal diet and obesity in shaping offspring microbiome remain unclear. Here we employed a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity via high-fat diet feeding (HFD, 45% fat calories) for 12 wk prior to conception on offspring gut microbial ecology. Male and female offspring were provided access to control or HFD from weaning until 17 wk of age. Maternal HFD-associated programming was sexually dimorphic, with male offspring from HFD dams showing hyper-responsive weight gain to postnatal HFD. Likewise, microbiome analysis of offspring cecal contents showed differences in ?-diversity, ?-diversity and higher Firmicutes in male compared to female mice. Weight gain in offspring was significantly associated with abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae families and Adlercreutzia, Coprococcus and Lactococcus genera. Sex differences in metagenomic pathways relating to lipid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis and immune response were also observed. HFD-fed male offspring from HFD dams also showed worse hepatic pathology, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered expression of bile acid regulators (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1 and Cyp39a1) and serum bile acid concentrations. These findings suggest that maternal HFD alters gut microbiota composition and weight gain of offspring in a sexually dimorphic manner, coincident with fatty liver and a pro-inflammatory state in male offspring.
Project description:This study assessed the extent to which high fat diet (HFD)-induced ?-amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline in APP/PSEN1 mice are reversible through control of fat intake. Ten months of HFD (60% calories from fat) led to significant deficits in a 2-trial Y maze task, and nest building assay, and decreased voluntary locomotor activity. The HFD induced an inflammatory response, indicated by increased expression of several inflammatory markers. Substituting a low fat diet led to pronounced weight loss and correction of glucose intolerance, decreases in the inflammatory response, and improved performance on behavioral tasks in both wild-type and APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice. Insoluble ?-amyloid levels, and extent of tau phosphorylation were also lower following dietary reversal in APP/PSEN1 mice compared to high fat-fed animals, indicating that the inflammatory response may have contributed to key pathogenic pathways in the Alzheimer's disease model. The data suggest that weight loss can be a vital strategy for cognitive protection, but also highlight potential mechanisms for intervention when sustained weight loss is not possible.
Project description:Calorie restriction has been regarded as the only experimental regimen that can effectively lengthen lifespan in various animal models, but the actual mechanism remains controversial. The gut microbiota has been shown to have a pivotal role in host health, and its structure is mostly shaped by diet. Here we show that life-long calorie restriction on both high-fat or low-fat diet, but not voluntary exercise, significantly changes the overall structure of the gut microbiota of C57BL/6 J mice. Calorie restriction enriches phylotypes positively correlated with lifespan, for example, the genus Lactobacillus on low-fat diet, and reduces phylotypes negatively correlated with lifespan. These calorie restriction-induced changes in the gut microbiota are concomitant with significantly reduced serum levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting that animals under calorie restriction can establish a structurally balanced architecture of gut microbiota that may exert a health benefit to the host via reduction of antigen load from the gut.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver injury and liver transplantation in Western countries. The pathogenesis of NAFLD includes overnutrition-associated metabolic syndrome or the improper consumption of dietary macro- and micro-nutrients that either support or prevent disease development. This altered nutrient landscape has been linked to shifts within the gut microbiota which can exacerbate liver pathology and the progression of NAFLD. Treatment goals for NAFLD target lifestyle and dietary modifications that restrict calories and adjust macronutrient content. It is not well understood how different macronutrients alter the microbiota and whether the diet-educated microbiota contribute to the resolution of disease. We fed mice a diet high in fat, cholesterol and fructose for 6 weeks and then in two different arms of the study, intervened with either a diet high in saturated and polyunsaturated fats and fiber or low in fats and fiber. In a second set of experiments, we performed microbiota transplants using cecal contents from mice fed one of the intervention diets to assess whether the diet-educated microbiota could impact clinical outcomes in mice fed a NAFLD-inducing diet. Pathology, steatosis, ALT/AST levels, and liver cytokine levels were measured as primary outcomes. We found that despite different microbiota compositions, both of the intervention diets reversed the progression of NAFLD and dampened inflammation. In contrast, transplantation of cecal contents from the intervention diet-fed mice to mice receiving a NAFLD-inducing diet was unable to prevent disease progression, and, in some cases, worsened disease. These data underscore the importance of dietary modifications to treat NAFLD and caution against the use of microbiota transplantation in the absence of dietary and lifestyle modifications.
Project description:Mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks or longer develop hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Additionally, a high-fat diet induces inflammation that remodels and affects the anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic property of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). However, the precise time course of metabolic disease progression and HDL remodeling remains unclear. Short-term (four weeks) high-fat feeding (60% fat calories) was performed in wild-type male C57BL/6J mice to gain insights into the early metabolic disease processes in conjunction with a HDL proteome dynamics analysis using a heavy water metabolic labeling approach. The high-fat diet-fed mice developed hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolemia without hypertriglyceridemia or hepatic steatosis. A plasma HDL proteome dynamics analysis revealed increased turnover rates (and reduced half-lives) of several acute-phase response proteins involved in innate immunity, including complement C3 (12.77 ± 0.81 vs. 9.98 ± 1.20 h, p < 0.005), complement factor B (12.71 ± 1.01 vs. 10.85 ± 1.04 h, p < 0.05), complement Factor H (19.60 ± 1.84 vs. 16.80 ± 1.58 h, p < 0.05), and complement factor I (25.25 ± 1.29 vs. 19.88 ± 1.50 h, p < 0.005). Our findings suggest that an early immune response-induced inflammatory remodeling of the plasma HDL proteome precedes the diet-induced steatosis and dyslipidemia.