ABSTRACT: Rationale: Circular RNAs are pervasively expressed in highly diverged eukaryotes. Circular RNAs are more stable in body fluids, however, the link between circular RNA and onset of atrial fibrillation has never been investigated. Objective: To identify plasma circular RNAs for diagnosing onset of atrial fibrillation after the cardiac surgery. Methods and Results: Plasma circular RNAs expression was investigated in participants underwent isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. First, we used microarray to screen 15 circular RNAs in 30 plasma samples for diagnosing new onset of atrial fibrillation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was then applied to evaluate the expression of selected circular RNAs. Hsa_circRNA_025016 was upregulated in patients with onset of atrial fibrillation, with a high diagnostic accuracy by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The satisfactory diagnostic performance of hsa_circRNA_025016 persisted in validation cohort. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes biological pathway analysis indicated that hsa_circ_025016 could participate in melanogenesis, insulin secretion, and thyroid hormone signaling pathway. There was a positive correlation between hsa_circ_025016 and fast blood glucose in both cohorts. Conclusions: Hsa_circ_025016 is a novel biomarker of onset of atrial fibrillation after isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Overall design: Plasma Circular RNAs before surgery were collected. Plasma of patients with postoperative atrial fibrilltion and Patients without postoperative atrial fibrilltion were detected the expression of circular RNAs.
INSTRUMENT(S): 074301 Arraystar Human CircRNA microarray V2
Project description:Background Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are pervasively expressed in highly divergent eukaryotes and are stable in body fluids. However, the link between circRNAs and onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not previously been investigated. We aimed to identify plasma circRNAs that are able predict AF after cardiac surgery. Methods and Results Plasma circRNA expression profiles were investigated in a total of 769 patients with or without AF after isolated off?pump coronary artery bypass grafting. First, a circRNA microarray was used to screen 13 617 human circRNAs in plasma samples from patients in the discovery cohort (n=30). A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was then applied to evaluate the expression of 9 selected circRNAs in the training cohort (n=365). This approach revealed that hsa_circRNA_025016 was upregulated in patients with new?onset AF with a high diagnostic accuracy as assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (=0.802). Additionally, a satisfactory diagnostic performance of hsa_circRNA_025016 was found in the validation cohort (n=284). Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes biological pathway analysis indicated that hsa_circ_025016 participated in melanogenesis, insulin secretion, and the thyroid hormone signaling pathway. A positive correlation between hsa_circ_025016 and fasting blood glucose was also identified in both cohorts. Conclusions Hsa_circ_025016 is a potential biomarker for predicting new?onset AF after isolated off?pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
Project description:Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the commonest post-operative cardiac arrhythmia, affecting ?1 in 3 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although its aetiology is complex, atrial substrate changes may pre-dispose to its onset. This study aims to ascertain the atrial microRNA signature of POAF and determine the potential for circulating microRNA as a pre-operative biomarker for this arrhythmia.Thirty-four patients undergoing non-emergent, on-pump CABG were prospectively recruited. Right atrial biopsies were taken intra-operatively and snap frozen for RNA extraction. Plasma was obtained at 24 h pre-operatively and at 2 and 4 days post-operatively. POAF was defined by continuous Holter recording. Inter-group comparisons were performed using Student's t-test or analysis of variance as required. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of pre-operative serum miRNA as a POAF biomarker.Sixteen microRNAs were differentially expressed in the atrial myocardium of POAF patients when compared with those maintaining sinus rhythm. miR-208a was the most underexpressed [fold change (FC) = 2.458] and miR-483-5p the most overexpressed (FC = 1.804). miR-483-5p also demonstrated significant overexpression in the pre-operative serum of these patients, with ROC analysis demonstrating an overall predictive accuracy of 78%.This study provides the first description of atrial myocardial and circulating plasma microRNA in POAF patients. Our findings suggest POAF may be associated with pre-existing atrial substrate differences predisposing to arrhythmogenesis. Moreover, this study highlights the potential for miR-483-5p in biomarker development. Further work must now perform prospective, targeted validation of these results in a larger patient cohort.
Project description:Although mortality after cardiac surgery has significantly decreased in the last decade, patients still experience clinically relevant postoperative complications. Among others, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common consequence of cardiac surgery, which is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality.We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery or a combination of both at the University Hospital Muenster between April 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated the incidence of new onset and intermittent/permanent AF (patients with pre- and postoperative AF). Furthermore, we investigated the impact of postoperative AF on clinical outcomes and evaluated potential risk factors.In total, 999 patients were included in the analysis. New onset AF occurred in 24.9% of the patients and the incidence of intermittent/permanent AF was 59.5%. Both types of postoperative AF were associated with prolonged ICU length of stay (median increase approx. 2 days) and duration of mechanical ventilation (median increase 1 h). Additionally, new onset AF patients had a higher rate of dialysis and hospital mortality and more positive fluid balance on the day of surgery and postoperative days 1 and 2. In a multiple logistic regression model, advanced age (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.448 per decade increase, p?<?0.0001), a combination of CABG and valve surgery (OR?=?1.711, p?=?0.047), higher C-reactive protein (OR?=?1.06 per unit increase, p?<?0.0001) and creatinine plasma concentration (OR?=?1.287 per unit increase, p?=?0.032) significantly predicted new onset AF. Higher Horowitz index values were associated with a reduced risk (OR?=?0.996 per unit increase, p?=?0.012). In a separate model, higher plasma creatinine concentration (OR?=?2.125 per unit increase, p?=?0.022) was a significant risk factor for intermittent/permanent AF whereas higher plasma phosphate concentration (OR?=?0.522 per unit increase, p?=?0.003) indicated reduced occurrence of this arrhythmia.New onset and intermittent/permanent AF are associated with adverse clinical outcomes of elective cardiac surgery patients. Different risk factors implicated in postoperative AF suggest different mechanisms might be involved in its pathogenesis. Customized clinical management protocols seem to be warranted for a higher success rate of prevention and treatment of postoperative AF.
Project description:Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication of cardiac surgery that is associated with an increased incidence of other complications. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of landiolol hydrochloride--an ultrashort-acting ?1-selective blocker and highly regulated drug, positioned as a class 1 antiarrhythmic in Japan guidelines--for the prevention of AF after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Between January 2011 and November 2013, 116 patients underwent CABG at Fukuoka University Hospital. They were divided into two groups: group L consisted of patients who were administered landiolol hydrochloride at 2 ?g/kg/min after completion of all distal anastomoses; group C was the control group consisting of patients who were not administered landiolol. Patient backgrounds, intraoperative variables and incidence of postoperative complications were compared.No significant between-group differences were observed in patient backgrounds or incidence of complications other than postoperative AF, which occurred significantly less frequently in group L. After administration of landiolol, heart rate decreased but no change was observed in arterial pressure or other parameters, and patient hemodynamics remained stable.Intraoperative and perioperative administration of low-dose landiolol has a preventive effect on the development of AF after CABG surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery is associated with increased rates of death, complications, and hospitalizations. In patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation who are in stable condition, the best initial treatment strategy--heart-rate control or rhythm control--remains controversial. METHODS:Patients with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation were randomly assigned to undergo either rate control or rhythm control. The primary end point was the total number of days of hospitalization within 60 days after randomization, as assessed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS:Postoperative atrial fibrillation occurred in 695 of the 2109 patients (33.0%) who were enrolled preoperatively; of these patients, 523 underwent randomization. The total numbers of hospital days in the rate-control group and the rhythm-control group were similar (median, 5.1 days and 5.0 days, respectively; P=0.76). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of death (P=0.64) or overall serious adverse events (24.8 per 100 patient-months in the rate-control group and 26.4 per 100 patient-months in the rhythm-control group, P=0.61), including thromboembolic and bleeding events. About 25% of the patients in each group deviated from the assigned therapy, mainly because of drug ineffectiveness (in the rate-control group) or amiodarone side effects or adverse drug reactions (in the rhythm-control group). At 60 days, 93.8% of the patients in the rate-control group and 97.9% of those in the rhythm-control group had had a stable heart rhythm without atrial fibrillation for the previous 30 days (P=0.02), and 84.2% and 86.9%, respectively, had been free from atrial fibrillation from discharge to 60 days (P=0.41). CONCLUSIONS:Strategies for rate control and rhythm control to treat postoperative atrial fibrillation were associated with equal numbers of days of hospitalization, similar complication rates, and similarly low rates of persistent atrial fibrillation 60 days after onset. Neither treatment strategy showed a net clinical advantage over the other. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02132767.).
Project description:Postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) is common after coronary artery bypass grafting. We previously showed that atrial fibrillation susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the chromosome 4q25 locus are associated with PoAF. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a combined clinical and genetic model incorporating atrial fibrillation risk SNPs would be superior to a clinical-only model.We developed and externally validated clinical and clinical/genetic risk models for PoAF. The discovery and validation cohorts included 556 and 1164 patients, respectively. Clinical variables previously associated with PoAF and 13 SNPs at loci associated with atrial fibrillation in genome-wide association studies were considered. PoAF occurred in 30% and 29% of patients in the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. In the discovery cohort, a logistic regression model with clinical factors had good discrimination, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.76. The addition of 10 SNPs to the clinical model did not improve discrimination (area under receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.78; P=0.14 for difference between the 2 models). In the validation cohort, the clinical model had good discrimination (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.69) and addition of genetic variables resulted in a marginal improvement in discrimination (area under receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.72; P<0.0001).We developed and validated a model for the prediction of PoAF containing common clinical variables. Addition of atrial fibrillation susceptibility SNPs did not improve model performance. Tools to accurately predict PoAF are needed to risk stratify patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and identify candidates for prophylactic therapies.
Project description:Highlights•Bronchogenic cyst is a rare cause of new-onset atrial fibrillation.•Cysts are often discovered incidentally on diagnostic imaging.•Multimodality imaging is critical for effectively diagnosing bronchogenic cysts.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The current study aims to investigate the role of echocardiographically measured epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in the prediction of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHODS:One hundred and twenty-four patients scheduled to undergo isolated on-pump CABG due to coronary artery disease were enrolled to the current study. Patient characteristics, medical history and perioperative variables were prospectively collected. EAT thickness was measured using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Any documented episode of new-onset postoperative AF (POAF) until discharge was defined as the study endpoint. Fortyfour participants with POAF served as AF group and 80 patients without AF served as Non-AF group. RESULTS:Two groups were similar in terms of baseline echocardiographic and laboratory findings. In laboratory findings, the groups were similar in terms of the studied parameters, except N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT Pro-BNP), which was higher in AF group than in Non-AF group (P=0.035). The number of left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafts was not different in both groups. AF group had higher cross-clamp (CC) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times than Non-AF group (P=0.01 and P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, EAT was found an independent predictor for the development of POAF (OR 4.47, 95% CI 3.07-5.87, P=0.001). CONCLUSION:We have shown that EAT thickness is associated with increased risk of AF development and can be used as a prognostic marker for this purpose.
Project description:We hypothesized that genetic variations in the adrenergic signaling pathway and cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme are associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and were treated with perioperative ?-blockers (BBs).Two cohorts of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and received perioperative BBs at Duke University Medical Center were studied. In a discovery cohort of 563 individuals from the Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes Study (PEGASUS), using a covariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis, we tested 492 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 candidate genes of the adrenergic signaling pathway and cytochrome P450 2D6 for association with postoperative AF despite perioperative BB therapy. SNPs meeting a false discovery rate ?0.20 (P<0.002) were then tested in the replication cohort of 245 individuals from the Catheterization Genetics biorepository. Of the 492 SNPs examined, 4 intronic SNPs of the G protein-coupled kinase 5 (GRK5) gene were significantly associated with postoperative AF despite perioperative BB therapy in the discovery cohort with additive odds ratios between 1.72 and 2.75 (P=4.78×10(-5) to 0.0015). Three of these SNPs met nominal significance levels in the replication cohort with odds ratios between 2.07 and 2.60 (P=0.007 to 0.016). However, meta-analysis of the 2 data sets cohorts suggested strong association with postoperative AF despite perioperative BB therapy in all 4 SNPs (meta-P values from 1.66×10(-6) to 3.39×10(-5)).In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, genetic variation in GRK5 is associated with postoperative AF despite perioperative BB therapy.