Project description:A comparative global natural products social (GNPS) molecular networking analysis of 63 co-isolated fungi guided the isolation of new scopularide H and known scopularide A from Scopulariopsis sp. CMB-F115
Project description:A comparative global natural products social (GNPS) molecular networking analysis of 63 co-isolated fungi guided isolation of new scopularides C-H and the known scopularides A and B from Scopulariopsis spp. CMB-F458 and CMB-F115, and Beauveria sp. CMB-F585
Project description:Chemical investigation of Scopulariopsis sp. CMB-F458 yielded the known scopularides A and B, coupled with a comparative global natural products social (GNPS) molecular networking analysis of 63 co-isolated fungi guided the isolation of six new scopularides C-H from Beauveria sp. CMB-F585 and Scopulariopsis sp. CMB-F115
Project description:Chemical analysis of a cultivation of an Australian Mugil mullet gastrointestinal tract (GIT) derived fungus, Scopulariopsis sp. CMB-F458, yielded the known lipodepsipeptides scopularides A (1) and B (2). A comparative global natural product social (GNPS) molecular networking analysis of ×63 co-isolated fungi, detected two additional fungi producing new scopularides, with Beauveria sp. CMB-F585 yielding scopularides C-G (3-7) and Scopulariopsis sp. CMB-F115 yielding scopularide H (8). Structures inclusive of absolute configurations were assigned by detailed spectroscopic and C3 Marfey's analysis, together with X-ray analyses of 3 and 8, and biosynthetic considerations. Scopularides A-H (1-8) did not exhibit significant growth inhibitory activity against a selection of Gram positive (+ve) and negative (-ve) bacteria, a fungus, or a panel of three human carcinoma cell lines.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with increased risk of stroke and poor cognition. Vascular risk factors and medications used for stroke prevention may increase the risk of CMB. We examined the prevalence of CMB and the association of these risk factors with CMB, postulating that risk factors for cerebral amyloid angiopathy would be associated with lobar CMB and markers of hypertensive vasculopathy with deep CMB. METHODS:We include 1965 Framingham Original and Offspring participants (age, 66.5±11.0 years; 54% women) and evaluated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of CMB. We related various vascular and genetic (apolipoprotein E [APOE]) risk factors and medication use to the presence of CMB overall and stratified by brain location (deep, lobar, or mixed). RESULTS:CMBs were observed in 8.8% of participants, being mostly lobar (63%). CMB prevalence increased with age (P<0.0001) and was higher in men (P<0.001). Hypertension increased risk of any CMB, and in deep and mixed locations (P<0.05), and low total cholesterol and APOE ?4 increased risk of lobar CMB (P<0.05). Statin use increased risk of lobar and mixed location CMB (P<0.05). The latter association was not affected by adjustment for cholesterol levels or concomitant medication use. CONCLUSIONS:We observed the expected association of hypertension with deep CMB and low cholesterol and APOE ?4 with lobar CMB. In addition, statin use was independently associated with CMB risk. This potential adverse effect of statin use needs to be examined in other cohorts.
Project description:Chemical analysis of a marine sponge, Cacospongia sp. (CMB-03404), obtained during deep sea commercial fishing activities off the southern coast of Australia, yielded an unprecedented family of sesterterpene ?-methyl-?-hydroxybutenolides, cacolides A?L (1?12), together with biosynthetically related norsesterterpene carboxylic acids, cacolic acids A?C (13?15). Structures were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis with comparisons to known natural products and biosynthetic considerations. In addition to revealing new chemical diversity, this study provided a valuable platform for comparing and contrasting the capabilities of the traditional dereplication technologies of HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS and NMR, with those of the emerging HPLC-MS/MS approach known as global natural products social molecular networking (GNPS), as applied to marine sponge sesterterpene tetronic acids.
Project description:Despite the recent advancements in culturomics, isolation of the majority of environmental microbiota performing critical ecosystem services, such as bioremediation of contaminants, remains elusive. Towards this end, we conducted a metagenomics-guided comparative assessment of soil microbial diversity and functions present in uraniferous soils relative to those that grew in diffusion chambers (DC) or microbial traps (MT), followed by isolation of uranium (U) resistant microbiota. Shotgun metagenomic analysis performed on the soils used to establish the DC/MT chambers revealed Proteobacterial phyla and Burkholderia genus to be the most abundant among bacteria. The chamber-associated growth conditions further increased their abundances relative to the soils. Ascomycota was the most abundant fungal phylum in the chambers relative to the soils, with Penicillium as the most dominant genus. Metagenomics-based taxonomic findings completely mirrored the taxonomic composition of the retrieved isolates such that the U-resistant bacteria and fungi mainly belonged to Burkholderia and Penicillium species, thus confirming that the chambers facilitated proliferation and subsequent isolation of specific microbiota with environmentally relevant functions. Furthermore, shotgun metagenomic analysis also revealed that the gene classes for carbohydrate metabolism, virulence, and respiration predominated with functions related to stress response, membrane transport, and metabolism of aromatic compounds were also identified, albeit at lower levels. Of major note was the successful isolation of a potentially novel Penicillium species using the MT approach, as evidenced by whole genome sequence analysis and comparative genomic analysis, thus enhancing our overall understanding on the uranium cycling microbiota within the tested uraniferous soils.
Project description:Antimicrobial bioassay-guided fractionation of the endophytic fungi <i>Neofusicoccum australe</i> led to the isolation of a new unsymmetrical naphthoquinone dimer, neofusnaphthoquinone B (<b>1</b>), along with four known natural products (<b>2</b>-<b>5</b>). Structure elucidation was conducted by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods, and the antimicrobial activity of all the natural products was investigated, revealing <b>1</b> to be moderately active towards methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16 µg/mL.
Project description:Inadequate diagnostic methods for prostate cancer lead to over- and undertreatment, and the inability to intraoperatively visualize positive margins may limit the success of surgical resection. Prostate cancer visualization could be improved by combining the complementary modalities of immuno-positron emission tomography (immunoPET) for preoperative disease detection, and fluorescence imaging-guided surgery (FIGS) for real-time intraoperative tumor margin identification. Here, we report on the evaluation of dual-labeled humanized anti-prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) cys-minibody (A11 cMb) for immunoPET/fluorescence imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate cancer models. Methods: A11 cMb was site-specifically conjugated with the near-infrared fluorophore Cy5.5 and radiolabeled with 124I or 89Zr. 124I-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 was used for successive immunoPET/fluorescence imaging of prostate cancer xenografts expressing high or moderate levels of PSCA (22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA). 89Zr-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 dual-modality imaging was evaluated in an orthotopic model. Ex vivo biodistribution at 24 h was used to confirm the uptake values, and tumors were visualized by post-mortem fluorescence imaging. Results: A11 cMb-Cy5.5 retained low nanomolar affinity for PSCA-positive cells. Conjugation conditions were established (dye-to-protein ratio of 0.7:1) that did not affect the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, or clearance of A11 cMb. ImmunoPET using dual-labeled 124I-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 showed specific targeting to both 22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA s.c. xenografts in nude mice. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed specific uptake to PSCA-expressing tumors with 22Rv1-PSCA:22Rv1 and PC3-PSCA:PC3 ratios of 13:1 and 5.6:1, respectively. Consistent with the immunoPET, fluorescence imaging showed a strong signal from both 22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA tumors compared with non-PSCA expressing tumors. In an orthotopic model, 89Zr-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 immunoPET was able to detect intraprostatically implanted 22Rv1-PSCA cells. Importantly, fluorescence imaging clearly distinguished the prostate tumor from surrounding seminal vesicles. Conclusion: Dual-labeled A11 cMb specifically visualized PSCA-positive tumor by successive immunoPET/fluorescence, which can potentially be translated for preoperative whole-body prostate cancer detection and intraoperative surgical guidance in patients.
Project description:The underlying pathology of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) with mixed lobar and deep distribution remains contentious. The aim of this study was to correlate CMBs distribution to ?-amyloid burden in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Fourty-seven ICH patients underwent magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging and <sup>11</sup>C-Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography. The amyloid burden was expressed as standardized uptake value ratio with reference to cerebellum, and presented as median (interquartile range). Patients were categorized into the lobar, mixed (both lobar and deep regions), and deep types of CMB. Comparing the lobar (17%), mixed (59.6%) and deep (23.4%) CMB types, the global amyloid burden was significantly higher in the mixed type than the deep type (1.10 [1.03-1.25] vs 1.00 [0.97-1.09], p?=?0.011), but lower than in the lobar type (1.48 [1.18-1.50], p?=?0.048). On multivariable analysis, the ratio of lobar to deep CMB number was positively correlated with global (p?=?0.028) and occipital (p?=?0.031) amyloid burden. In primary ICH, patients with lobar and mixed CMB types are associated with increased amyloid burden than patients with deep type. The ratio of lobar to deep CMB number is an independent indicator of cerebral ?-amyloid deposition.