Project description:The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 muL) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). All aspects related to sample preparation were re-assessed with regard to ease and speed of the analysis. The principle of the extraction procedure (solvent, salt) was not changed, to avoid the possibility invalidating data acquired over past decades. The modifications were made with techniques currently commonly applied in routine laboratories, GC-MS and LC-MS-MS, in mind. The modified method enables processing (from homogenization until final extracts for both GC and LC) of 30 samples per eight hours per person. Limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) were achieved with both GC-MS (full-scan acquisition, 10 mg matrix equivalent injected) and LC-MS-MS (2 mg injected) for most of the pesticides. Validation data for 341 pesticides and degradation products are presented. A compilation of analytical quality-control data for pesticides routinely analyzed by GC-MS (135 compounds) and LC-MS-MS (136 compounds) in over 100 different matrices, obtained over a period of 15 months, are also presented and discussed. At the 0.05 mg kg(-1) level acceptable recoveries were obtained for 93% (GC-MS) and 92% (LC-MS-MS) of pesticide-matrix combinations.
Project description:Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) offers specific advantages over gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) such as the ability to identify and measure a broader range of compounds with minimal sample preparation. Comparative analysis of LC-MS-MS versus GC-MS was performed for urinalysis detection of five benzodiazepine compounds currently part of the Department of Defense (DoD) Drug Demand Reduction Program (DDRP) testing panel; alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, lorazepam, nordiazepam and temazepam. In the analyses of internally prepared control urine samples at concentrations around the DDRP administrative decision point for benzodiazepines (100 ng/mL), both technologies produced comparable results with average accuracies between 99.7 and 107.3% and average coefficients of variation (%CV) <9%. Analysis of service member specimens that screened positive for benzodiazepines using both technologies produced comparable results for all analytes. Different degrees of matrix effect were observed for all analytes in the LC-MS-MS analysis. However, the effects were controlled by using deuterated internal standards (ISTDs). Additionally, there was a 39% increase in nordiazepam mean concentration analyzed by LC-MS-MS due to suppression of the ISTD ion by the flurazepam metabolite 2-hydroxyethylflurazepam. The ease and speed of sample extraction, the broader range of compounds that can be analyzed and shorter run time make the LC-MS-MS technology a suitable and expedient alternative confirmation technology for benzodiazepine testing.
Project description:Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is currently considered to be a conventional glycomics analysis strategy due to the high sensitivity and ability to handle complex biological samples. Interpretation of LC/MS data is a major bottleneck in high-throughput glycomics LC/MS-based analysis. The complexity of LC/MS data associated with biological samples prompts the needs to develop computational tools capable of facilitating automated data annotation and quantitation.An LC/MS-based automated data annotation and quantitation software, MultiGlycan-ESI, was developed and utilized for glycan quantitation. Data generated by the software from LC/MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans derived from fetuin were initially validated by manual integration to assess the performance of the software. The performance of MultiGlycan-ESI was then assessed for the quantitation of permethylated fetuin N-glycans analyzed at different concentrations or spiked with permethylated N-glycans derived from human blood serum.The relative abundance differences between data generated by the software and those generated by manual integration were less than 5%, indicating the reliability of MultiGlycan-ESI in quantitation of permethylated glycans analyzed by LC/MS. Automated quantitation resulted in a linear relationship for all six N-glycans derived from 50 ng to 400 ng fetuin with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) greater than 0.93. Spiking of permethylated fetuin N-glycans at different concentrations in permethylated N-glycan samples derived from a 0.02 ?L of HBS also exhibited linear agreement with R(2) values greater than 0.9.With a variety of options, including mass accuracy, merged adducts, and filtering criteria, MultiGlycan-ESI allows automated annotation and quantitation of LC/ESI-MS N-glycan data. The software allows the reliable quantitation of glycan LC/MS data. The software is reliable for automated glycan quantitation, thus facilitating rapid and reliable high-throughput glycomics studies.
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, catalyzing tryptophan (Trp) metabolism through the kynurenine (Kyn) metabolic pathway, plays important roles in immune suppression and the CNS. In this article, we report a simple, rapid and specific LC-MS/MS method for accurate determination of Kyn and Trp concentrations in human plasma from HIV-infected patients.The human plasma sample (100 µl) was mixed with Kyn-d4 and Trp-d5 internal standards and then precipitated with trifluoroacetic acid. The supernatant was directly analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The assay using surrogate matrix calibrators was validated for precision, accuracy, matrix effect, extraction efficiency and stability. Some assay validation issues for endogenous substance bioanalysis using an LC-MS/MS method are discussed.A simple, specific and reproducible LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for measuring Kyn and Trp in human plasma samples.
Project description:Background:Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-mediated infections are a growing cause of worldwide morbidity, but lack of rapid diagnostics for specific NTM species can delay the initiation of appropriate treatment regimens. We thus examined whether mass spectrometry analysis of an abundantly secreted mycobacterial antigen could identify specific NTM species. Methods:We analyzed predicted tryptic peptides of the major mycobacterial antigen Ag85B for their capacity to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis and three NTM species responsible for the majority of pulmonary infections caused by slow-growing mycobacterial species. Next, we analyzed trypsin-digested culture supernatants of these four mycobacterial species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect candidate species-specific Ag85B peptides, the identity of which were validated by LC-MS/MS performed in parallel reaction monitoring mode. Results:Theoretical tryptic digests of the Ag85B proteins of four common mycobacterial species produced peptides with distinct sequences, including two peptides that could each identify the species origin of each Ag85B protein. LC-MS/MS analysis of trypsinized culture supernatants of these four species detected one of these species-specific signature peptides in each sample. Subsequent LC-MS/MS analyses confirmed these results by targeting these species-specific Ag85B peptides. Conclusions:LC-MS/MS analysis of Ag85B peptides from trypsin-digested mycobacterial culture supernatants can rapidly detect and identify common mycobacteria responsible for most pulmonary infections caused by slow-growing mycobacteria, and has the potential to rapidly diagnose pulmonary infections caused by these mycobacteria through direct analysis of clinical specimens.
Project description:Objective: Cotinine is the preferred biomarker to validate levels of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in children. Compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (ELISA) for quantifying cotinine in saliva, the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has higher sensitivity and specificity to measure very low levels of TSE. We sought to compare LC-MS/MS and ELISA measures of cotinine in saliva samples from children overall and the associations of these measures with demographics and TSE patterns. Method: Participants were nonsmoking children (N = 218; age mean (SD) = 6.1 (5.1) years) presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Saliva samples were analyzed for cotinine using both LC-MS/MS and ELISA. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) for LC-MS/MS and ELISA was 0.1 ng/ml and 0.15 ng/ml, respectively. Results: Intraclass correlations (ICC) across methods = 0.884 and was consistent in sex and age subgroups. The geometric mean (GeoM) of LC-MS/MS = 4.1 (range: < LOQ - 382 ng/mL; 3% < LOQ) which was lower (p < 0.0001) than the ELISA GeoM = 5.7 (range: < LOQ - 364 ng/mL; 5% < LOQ). Similar associations of cotinine concentrations with age ( < -0.10, p < 0.0001), demographic characteristics (e.g., income), and number of cigarettes smoked by caregiver ( > 0.07, p < 0.0001) were found regardless of cotinine detection method; however, cotinine associations with sex and race/ethnicity were only found to be significant in models using LC-MS/MS-derived cotinine. Conclusions: Utilizing LC-MS/MS-based cotinine, associations of cotinine with sex and race/ethnicity of child were revealed that were not detectable using ELISA-based cotinine, demonstrating the benefits of utilizing the more sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for cotinine measurement when detecting low levels of TSE in children.
Project description:A method for increasing the productivity of ESI LC-MS/MS (electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) was proposed and applied. After IF (isoelectric focusing) of the sample using IPG (immobilized pH gradient) strip, the strip was cut to sections, and every section was treated according to trypsinolysis protocol for MS/MS analysis. The peptides produced were further analyzed by ESI LC-MS/MS. The procedure allows to: •identify many more proteins and proteoforms compared to shotgun analysis of extracts.•build a semi-virtual 2DE map of identified proteins.
Project description:This study describes a new protein digestion protocol in which a variety of detergents can be used to solubilize membrane proteins and facilitate trypsin digestion with higher efficiency. In this protocol, proteins are dissolved in solutions containing various detergents and directly incorporated into a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. Detergents are subsequently eliminated from the gel matrix while proteins are still immobilized in the gel matrix. After in-gel digestion of proteins, LC-MS/MS is used to analyze the extracted peptides for protein identification. The uniqueness of the protocol is that it allows usage of a variety of detergents in the starting solution without interfering with LC-MS/MS analysis. We hereby demonstrate that different detergents, including ionic SDS, non-ionic Triton X-100 and n-octyl beta-d-glucopyranoside, and zwitterionic CHAPS, can be used to achieve maximum solubilization of membrane proteins with minimal interference with LC-MS/MS analysis. Enhanced digestions, i.e. improved number and intensity of detected peptides, are also demonstrated for digestion-resistant proteins such as myoglobin, ubiquitin, and bacteriorhodopsin. An additional advantage of the Tube-Gel digestion protocol is that, even without electrophoresis separation, it allows high throughput analysis of complex protein mixtures when coupled with LC-MS/MS. The protocol was used to analyze a complex membrane protein mixture prepared from prostate cancer cells. The protocol involves only a single digestion and 2.5 h of LC-MS/MS analysis and identified 178 membrane proteins. In comparison, the same membrane fraction was resolved by SDS-PAGE, and 20 gel slices were excised and individually digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The more elaborate effort demanded more than 50 h of LC-MS/MS analysis and identified 268 proteins. The new Tube-Gel digestion protocol is an alternative method for high throughput analysis of membrane proteins.