Endothelial cell proteomic response to Rickettsia conorii infection
ABSTRACT: Rickettsia conorii is the etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, a re-emerging disease with significant mortality. This obligate, gram-negative intracellular pathogen is transmitted via tick bites, resulting in disseminated vascular endothelial cell infection with vascular leakage. In the infected human, Rickettsia conorii infects endothelial cells, stimulating expression of cytokines and pro-coagulant factors. However, the integrated proteomic response of human endothelial cells to R. conorii infection is not known. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic profiling of R conorii â??infected primary HUVECs vs those stimulated with LPS alone.
Project description:Rickettsia conorii is the etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, a re-emerging disease with significant mortality. This obligate, gram-negative intracellular pathogen is transmitted via tick bites, resulting in disseminated vascular endothelial cell infection with vascular leakage. In the infected human, Rickettsia conorii infects endothelial cells, stimulating expression of cytokines and pro-coagulant factors. However, the integrated proteomic response of human endothelial cells to R. conorii infection is not known. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic profiling of R conorii –infected primary HUVECs vs those stimulated with LPS alone.
Project description:Vaccination reduces morbidity and mortality from pneumonia but its effect on the tissue-level response to infection is still poorly understood. We evaluated pneumonia disease progression, acute phase response and lung gene expression profiles in mice inoculated intranasally with virulent gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype (ST) 3, with and without prior immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide ST 3 (PPS3), or co-immunization with PPS3 and with a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pneumonia severity was assessed in the acute phase, 5, 12, 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (p.i.) and the resolution phase of 7 days p.i. Primary PPS3 specific antibody production was upregulated and IgM binding to pneumococci increased in PPS3-immunized mice. Immunizations with PPS3 or PPS3 + LPS decreased bacterial recovery the lung and blood at 24 and 48 h and increased survival. Microarray analysis of whole lung RNA revealed significant changes in the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) between noninfected and infected mice, which were attenuated by immunization. SAA transcripts were higher in the liver and lungs of infected controls, and SAA protein was elevated in serum, but decreased in PPS3-immunized mice. Thus, during a virulent pneumonia infection, prior immunization with PPS3 in an IgM-dependent manner as well as co-immunization with PPS3 + LPS attenuated pneumonia severity and promoted resolution of infection, concomitant with significant regulation of cytokine gene expression in the lungs, and acute phase proteins in the lungs, liver and serum. Each lung RNA sample represented an individual mouse, creating biological repeats for each treatment. In-vivo treatments were as follows: non-infected lung (vehicle-immunized) control (n=5), infected lung (vehicle-immunized) control at 48 hr post-inoculation (n=5), PPS3 and LPS co-immunized lung at 48 hr post-inoculation (n=4) and PPS3 and LPS co-immunized lung at 7 days post-inoculation (n=4).
Project description:Dengue viruses cause two severe diseases that alter vascular fluid barrier functions, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). While the mechanisms that lead to vascular permeability are unknown, the endothelium plays a central role in regulating fluid and cellular efflux from capillaries. Thus, dysregulation of endothelial cells functions by dengue virus infection may contribute to pathogenesis and severe disease. We used microarrays to investigate the effect of dengue virus infection on gene expression within primary human endothelial cells at various times post infection and identified numerous upregulated antiviral and immune response genes. Early passage primary endothelial cells (HUVECs) were mock infected (no virus) or infected with dengue virus and total RNA collected at 3 timepoints: 12, 24, and 48 hours post infection. Multiple timepoints were analyzed to identify changes in gene expression levels over time. Gene expression from both mock infected and dengue virus infected endothelial cells was evaluated to determine fold induction at each timepoint.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms underlying vascular inflammation and associated inflammatory vascular diseases are not well defined. Here we show that endothelial intracellular adenosine and its key regulator adenosine kinase (ADK) play important roles in vascular inflammation. Pro-inflammatory stimuli lead to endothelial inflammation by increasing endothelial ADK expression, reducing the level of intracellular adenosine in endothelial cells, and activating the transmethylation pathway through increasing the association of ADK with S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase (SAHH). Increasing intracellular adenosine by genetic ADK knockdown or exogenous adenosine reduces activation of the transmethylation pathway and attenuates the endothelial inflammatory response. In addition, loss of endothelial ADK in mice leads to reduced atherosclerosis and affords protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury of the cerebral cortex. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intracellular adenosine, which is controlled by the key molecular regulator ADK, influences endothelial inflammation and vascular inflammatory diseases. We knocked down the adenosine kinase (ADK) in human primary endothelial cells to study the endothelial inflammatory responses to ADK inactivation under static conditions. Overall design: HUVECs were infected with human ADK shRNA or control adenovirus and RNA was processed for microarray analysis 30 h post infection. Three biological replicates were used for each condition.
Project description:Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus that causes regular outbreaks in East Asia with mortality rate exceeding 75%. Major cellular targets of NiV infection are endothelial cells and neurons. To better understand virus-host interaction, we analysed the transcriptome profile of NiV infection in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We found that NiV infection strongly induces genes involved in interferon response in endothelial cells. Among the top ten upregulated genes, we identified the chemokine CXCL10 (interferon-induced protein 10, IP-10), an important chemoattractant involved in the generation of inflammatory immune response and neurotoxicity. We performed microarray gene expression profiling of NiV infected HUVEC cell (2 replicates) and of uninfected HUVEC cell (2 replicates).
Project description:Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) exacerbate influenza-associated disease and mortality. Antimicrobial agents can reduce the severity of SBIs, but many have limited efficacy or cause adverse effects. Thus, new treatment strategies are needed. Kinetic models describing the infection process can help determine optimal therapeutic targets, the time scale on which a drug will be most effective, and how infection dynamics will change under therapy. To understand how different therapies perturb the dynamics of influenza infection and bacterial coinfection and to quantify the benefit of increasing a drug’s efficacy or targeting a different infection process, I analyzed data from mice treated with an antiviral, an antibiotic, or an immune modulatory agent with kinetic models. The results suggest that antivirals targeting the viral life cycle are most efficacious in the first 2 days of infection, potentially because of an improved immune response, and that increasing the clearance of infected cells is important for treatment later in the infection. For a coinfection, immunotherapy could control low bacterial loads with as little as 20 % efficacy, but more effective drugs would be necessary for high bacterial loads. Antibiotics targeting bacterial replication and administered 10 h after infection would require 100 % efficacy, which could be reduced to 40 % with prophylaxis. Combining immunotherapy with antibiotics could substantially increase treatment success. Taken together, the results suggest when and why some therapies fail, determine the efficacy needed for successful treatment, identify potential immune effects, and show how the regulation of underlying mechanisms can be used to design new therapeutic strategies.
Model is encoded by Ruby and submitted to BioModels by Ahmad Zyoud
Project description:In order to understand the appropriate use of potentially beneficial Gram positive microbes through their introduction in the gut microbiome, it is necessary to understand the influence of individual bacteria on the host response system at a cellular level. In the present study we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellated Gram negative bacteria, potentially beneficial Gram positive bacteria and yeast interact differently with human intestinal enterocytes (IEC) with a custom-designed expression microarray evaluating 17 specific host-response pathways. Only, LPS and flagellated Gram negative bacteria induced inflammatory response, while a subset of Gram positive microbes had anti-inflammatory potential. The main outcome from the study was the differential regulation of the central MAPK signaling pathway by these Gram positive microbes versus commensal/pathogenic Gram negative bacteria. The microarray was efficient to highlight the impact of individual bacteria on IEC response, but q-RT-PCR validation demonstrated some underestimation for down regulated genes by the microarray. This Immune Array will allow us to better understand the mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced host immune responses, aid in the selection potentially probiotic microbes and perhaps select biomarkers for future clinical studies. In this study, human immune response was assessed by stimulating HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with different microorganisms (or LPS) individually. For each of the 12 different treatments, between 4 and 8 biological replicates were performed, analyzed with dye-swaps and hybridized against control or untreated cells. Genes that were showing a 1.3 mRNA transcript abundance fold change and a P-value below 0.05 were considered to be differentially expressed.
Project description:we investigated the host cell responses involved in the molecular pathways interaction in porcine aortic vascular endothelial cells (PAVECs) induced by H. parasuis Overall design: PAVECs were infected with H. parasuis SH0165 strain and the cells were collected for transcriptomic analysis. The control cells were infected with M-199 medium and treated in the same way. Three individual replicates were designed for the infection experiment.
Project description:This experiment is to compare the transcription patterns of mouse macrophages (J774A.1) infected with BCG, H37Ra and M. smegmatis under high multiplicity of infection (MOI). Through the global transcriptome profiling study, we define a pathogen specific host gene expression pattern and indicate that SRC likely plays a central role in regulating multiple unique signaling pathways activated by MTB infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infects an estimated one-third of the global population and is one of the main causes of mortality due to an infectious agent. Overall design: high multiplicity mycobacterial infection of BCG, H37Ra and M.semg
Project description:This is an investigation of whole genome gene expression level in tissues of mice stimulated by LPS, FK565 or LPS + FK565 in vivo and ex vivo. We show that parenteral administration of a pure synthetic Nod1 ligand, FK565, induces site-specific vascular inflammation in mice, which is prominent in aortic root including aortic valves, slight in aorta and absent in other arteries. The degree of respective vascular inflammation is associated with persistent high expression of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine genes in each tissue in vivo by microarray analysis, and not with Nod1 expression levels. The ex vivo production of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine by Nod1 ligand is higher in aortic root than in other arteries from normal murine vascular tissues, and also higher in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) than in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC), suggesting that site-specific vascular inflammation is at least in part ascribed to an intrinsic nature of the vascular tissue/cell itself. Overall design: A fourty chip study using total RNA recovered from four isolated tissues of mice which were stimulated by various reagents. Aortic root, pulmonary artery, aorta and spleen of mice in 3 groups: 1) intraperitoneal injection of 20μg of LPS priming only, 2) oral administration of FK565 (100μg) for consecutive days, 3) oral administration of FK565 (100μg) for consecutive days 1 day after LPS priming, at day 2, 4, and 7. And six chip study using total RNA recovered from three isolated vascular tissues of mice which were stimulated by FK565 (10μg/mL) ex vivo.