ABSTRACT: Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) using the phosphorylated RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD) identified the capping enzyme and the H3K4 methyltransferase complex SETD1A/B. Subsequent inhibition of CDK7 revealed displaced H3K4me3 marks at the 3'-end of genes.
Project description:CDK7 phosphorylates the RNA polymerase II (pol II) C-terminal domain CTD and activates the P-TEFb-associated kinase CDK9, but its regulatory roles remain obscure. Here, using human CDK7 analog-sensitive (CDK7as) cells, we observed reduced capping enzyme recruitment, increased pol II promoter-proximal pausing, and defective termination at gene 3' ends upon CDK7 inhibition. We also noted that CDK7 regulates chromatin modifications downstream of transcription start sites. H3K4me3 spreading was restricted at gene 5' ends and H3K36me3 was displaced toward gene 3' ends in CDK7as cells. Mass spectrometry identified factors that bound TFIIH-phosphorylated versus P-TEFb-phosphorylated CTD (versus unmodified); capping enzymes and H3K4 methyltransferase complexes, SETD1A/B, selectively bound phosphorylated CTD, and the H3K36 methyltransferase SETD2 specifically bound P-TEFb-phosphorylated CTD. Moreover, TFIIH-phosphorylated CTD stimulated SETD1A/B activity toward nucleosomes, revealing a mechanistic basis for CDK7 regulation of H3K4me3 spreading. Collectively, these results implicate a CDK7-dependent "CTD code" that regulates chromatin marks in addition to RNA processing and pol II pausing.
Project description:Responsive CEST MRI biosensors offer good sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of biomarkers with great potential for clinical translation. We report the application of fosfosal, a phosphorylated form of salicylic acid, for the detection of alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme. We detected conversion of fosfosal to salicylic acid in the presence of the enzyme by CEST MRI. Importantly the technique was able to detect AP enzyme expressed in cells in the presence of other cell components, which improves specificity. Various isoforms of the enzyme showed different Michaelis-Menten kinetics and yet these kinetics studies indicated very efficient catalytic rates. Our results with the fosfosal biosensor encourage further in vivo studies.
Project description:Methyltransferases play crucial roles in many cellular processes, and various regulatory mechanisms have evolved to control their activities. For methyltransferases involved in biosynthetic pathways, regulation via feedback inhibition is a commonly employed strategy to prevent excessive accumulation of the pathways' end products. To date, no biosynthetic methyltransferases have been characterized by X-ray crystallography in complex with their corresponding end product. Here, we report the crystal structures of the glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase from the halophilic archaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis (MpGSMT), which represents the first structural elucidation of the GSMT methyltransferase family. As the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the osmoprotectant betaine, MpGSMT catalyzes N-methylation of glycine and sarcosine, and its activity is feedback-inhibited by the end product betaine. A structural analysis revealed that, despite the simultaneous presence of both substrate (sarcosine) and cofactor (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine; SAH), the enzyme was likely crystallized in an inactive conformation, as additional structural changes are required to complete the active site assembly. Consistent with this interpretation, the bound SAH can be replaced by the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine without triggering the methylation reaction. Furthermore, the observed conformational state was found to harbor a betaine-binding site, suggesting that betaine may inhibit MpGSMT activity by trapping the enzyme in an inactive form. This work implicates a structural basis by which feedback inhibition of biosynthetic methyltransferases may be achieved.
Project description:SIRT1, the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, controls cell-cycle progression and apoptosis by suppressing p53 tumour suppressor. Although SIRT1 is known to be phosphorylated by JNK1 upon oxidative stress and subsequently down-regulated, it still remains elusive how SIRT1 stability and activity are controlled. Here, we have unveiled that CHFR functions as an E3 Ub-ligase of SIRT1, responsible for its proteasomal degradation under oxidative stress conditions. CHFR interacts with and destabilizes SIRT1 by ubiquitylation and subsequent proteolysis. Such CHFR-mediated SIRT1 inhibition leads to the increase of p53 acetylation and its target gene transcription. Notably, CHFR facilitates SIRT1 destabilization when SIRT1 is phosphorylated by JNK1 upon oxidative stress, followed by prominent apoptotic cell death. Meanwhile, JNK inhibitor prevents SIRT1 phosphorylation, leading to elevated SIRT1 protein levels even in the presence of H2O2. Taken together, our results indicate that CHFR plays a crucial role in the cellular stress response pathway by controlling the stability and function of SIRT1.
Project description:BATF is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors that form transcriptionally inhibitory, DNA binding heterodimers with Jun proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that BATF is phosphorylated in vivo on multiple serine and threonine residues and at least one tyrosine residue. Reverse-polarity PAGE revealed that serine-43 and threonine-48 within the DNA binding domain of BATF are phosphorylated. To model phosphorylation of the BATF DNA binding domain, serine-43 was replaced by an aspartate residue. BATF(S43D) retains the ability to dimerize with Jun proteins in vitro and in vivo, and the BATF(S43D):Jun heterodimer localizes properly to the nucleus of cells. Interestingly, BATF(S43D) functions like wild-type BATF to reduce AP-1-mediated gene transcription, despite the observed inability of the BATF(S43D):Jun heterodimer to bind DNA. These data demonstrate that phosphorylation of serine-43 converts BATF from a DNA binding into a non-DNA binding inhibitor of AP-1 activity. Given that 40% of mammalian bZIP transcription factors contain a residue analogous to serine-43 of BATF in their DNA binding domains, the phosphorylation event described here represents a mechanism that is potentially applicable to the regulation of many bZIP proteins.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is the main enzyme responsible for the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues on target proteins in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Though its activity has been associated with tumor progression in various cancers, the expression pattern of this oncoprotein has been scarcely studied in breast cancer. In the current work, we analyzed its expression in a large cohort of breast cancer patients, revealing higher nuclear PRMT5 levels in ER?-positive tumors and an association with prolonged disease free and overall survival. Interestingly, high PRMT5 nuclear expression was also associated with higher nuclear liver kinase B1 (LKB1), suggesting that a functional relationship may occur. Consistently, several approaches provided evidence that PRMT5 and LKB1 interact directly in the cytoplasm of mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, although PRMT5 is not able to methylate LKB1, we found that PRMT5 is a bona fade substrate for LKB1. We identified T132, 139 and 144 residues, located in the TIM-Barrel domain of PRMT5, as target sites for LKB1 phosphorylation. The point mutation of PRMT5 T139/144 to A139/144 drastically decreased its methyltransferase activity, due probably to the loss of its interaction with regulatory proteins such as MEP50, pICln and RiOK1. In addition, modulation of LKB1 expression modified PRMT5 activity, highlighting a new regulatory mechanism that could have clinical implications.
Project description:Bacteriophage-T4 UV endonuclease nicks the C(3')-O-P bond 3' to AP (apurinic or apyrimidinic) sites by a beta-elimination reaction. The breakage of this bond is sometimes followed by the nicking of the C(5')-O-P bond 5' to the AP site, leaving a 3'-phosphate end; delta-elimination is proposed as a mechanism to explain this second reaction. The AP site formed when this enzyme acts on a pyrimidine dimer in a polynucleotide chain undergoes the same nicking reactions. Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease also nicks the C(3')-O-P bond 3' to AP sites by a beta-elimination reaction. No subsequent delta-elimination was observed, but this might be due to the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the enzyme preparation.
Project description:When a partially purified rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase is incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and rat brain protein kinase C, phospholipid methyltransferase (Mr 50,000, pI 4.75) becomes phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of the enzyme showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase was accompanied by an approx. 2-fold activation of the enzyme activity. Activity changes and enzyme phosphorylation showed the same time course. Activation of the enzyme also showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C mediates phosphorylation of predominantly serine residues of the methyltransferase. One major peak of phosphorylation was identified by analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides by isoelectrofocusing. This peak (pI 5.2) differs from that phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (pI 7.2), demonstrating the specificity of phosphorylation of protein kinase C. Tryptic-peptide mapping by h.p.l.c. of the methyltransferase phosphorylated by protein kinase C revealed one major peak of radioactivity, which could be resolved into two labelled phosphopeptides by t.l.c. The significance of protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase is discussed.
Project description:Disassembly of the nucleolus during mitosis is driven by phosphorylation of nucleolar proteins. RNA processing stops until completion of nucleolar reformation in G(1) phase. Here, we describe the RNA methyltransferase NSUN2, a novel substrate of Aurora-B that contains an NOL1/NOP2/sun domain. NSUN2 was concentrated in the nucleolus during interphase and was distributed in the perichromosome and cytoplasm during mitosis. Aurora-B phosphorylated NSUN2 at Ser139. Nucleolar proteins NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23 and nucleolin/C23 were associated with NSUN2 during interphase. In mitotic cells, association between NPM1 and NSUN2 was inhibited, but NSUN2-S139A was constitutively associated with NPM1. The Aurora inhibitor Hesperadin induced association of NSUN2 with NPM1 even in mitosis, despite the silver staining nucleolar organizer region disassembly. In vitro methylation experiments revealed that the Aurora-B-phosphorylation and the phosphorylation-mimic mutation (S139E) suppressed methyltransferase activities of NSUN2. These results indicate that Aurora-B participates to regulate the assembly of nucleolar RNA-processing machinery and the RNA methyltransferase activity of NSUN2 via phosphorylation at Ser139 during mitosis.
Project description:Arabidopsis thaliana repressor of silencing 1 (ROS1) is a multi-domain bifunctional DNA glycosylase/lyase, which excises 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as well as thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (i.e., the deamination products of 5mC and 5hmC) when paired with a guanine, leaving an apyrimidinic (AP) site that is subsequently incised by the lyase activity. ROS1 is slow in base excision and fast in AP lyase activity, indicating that the recognition of pyrimidine modifications might be a rate-limiting step. In the C-terminal half, the enzyme harbors a helix-hairpin-helix DNA glycosylase domain followed by a unique C-terminal domain. We show that the isolated glycosylase domain is inactive for base excision but retains partial AP lyase activity. Addition of the C-terminal domain restores the base excision activity and increases the AP lyase activity as well. Furthermore, the two domains remain tightly associated and can be co-purified by chromatography. We suggest that the C-terminal domain of ROS1 is indispensable for the 5mC DNA glycosylase activity of ROS1.