Project description:Wild indigenous vegetables make considerable contributions to food baskets among subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proximate analysis, mineral composition, vitamin C content, β-carotene content, and GC-MS profile of crude methanolic extracts of Asystasia mysorensis and Sesamum angustifolia. Crude extracts obtained through sequential extraction using ethyl acetate and methanol were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites. Functional groups present were determined with a Shimadzu FT-IR spectrophotometer, while β-carotene content and ascorbic acid content were evaluated using a Shimadzu HPLC and Shimadzu UV-VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. Secondary metabolites present in the extracts were determined qualitatively using a Shimadzu GC-MS system equipped with a NIST spectral database. From the results obtained, the two plants could supply the recommended daily requirement for micronutrient and vitamin C content needed for a healthy diet. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in S. amgustifolia were higher as compared to A. myorensis; hence, their consumption is highly beneficial as some compounds identified in the GC-MS profile have been reported to have medicinal properties. The findings on the mineral and chemical composition, GC-MS profile of A. mysorensis and S. angustifolia indicate that their consumption may provide the recommended nutritional requirements needed for a healthy diet.
Project description:Vibrio diabolicus A1SM3 strain was isolated from a sediment sample from Manaure Solar Saltern in La Guajira and the produced crude extracts have shown antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and cytotoxic activity against human lung cell line. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the main compound responsible for the biological activity observed and to systematically study how each carbon and nitrogen source in the growth media, and variation of the salinity, affect its production. For the characterization of the bioactive metabolites, 15 fractions obtained from Vibrio diabolicus A1SM3 crude extract were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and their activity was established. The bioactive fractions were dereplicated with Antibase and Marinlit databases, which combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and fragmentation by MS/MS, led to the identification of 2,2-di(3-indolyl)-3-indolone (isotrisindoline), an indole-derivative antibiotic, previously isolated from marine organisms. The influence of the variations of the culture media in isotrisindoline production was established by molecular network and MZmine showing that the media containing starch and peptone at 7% NaCl was the best culture media to produce it. Also, polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB) identification was established by MS/MS mainly in casamino acids media, contributing to the first report on PHB production by this strain.
Project description:Camptothecin (CPT) has strong antitumor activity and is used as an anticancer therapeutic agent. To better understand and decipher the pathway of CPT biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata, the main purpose here was focused on creating an effective extraction strategy for a rich intermediate metabolite profile. In the present study, a 70% aqueous acetonitrile was verified as an optimal extraction solvent for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of metabolites by spiking experiments. Based on multi-objective optimization, the best extraction conditions of a solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, microwave power of 230 W, and a time of 4 min were achieved using a full factorial 3⁴ experimental design. Crude extracts obtained from the shoot apex of C. acuminata using MAE have been qualitatively profiled by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS) and a HPLC triple quadrupole-MS (HPLC-TSQ-MS) analysis was conducted for their metabolite content in different tissues. CPT, and ten related metabolites and their isomers, including tryptamine, loganic acid, secologanic acid, strictosidinic acid, strictosamide, strictosamide epoxide, strictosamide diol, strictosamide ketolactam, pumiloside, and deoxypumiloside, were detected and tentatively identified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of the shoot apex demonstrated that severe cell disruption was evident after intensified extraction processes. The study showed the difference of metabolite profiles and the enhancement of metabolite content after microwave-pretreated techniques, and the established MAE procedure is an effective methodology to preserve valuable metabolite compounds for analysis.
Project description:Cyanobacteria have been shown to produce a number of bioactive compounds, including toxins. Some bioactive compounds obtained from a marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) have been recognized as drug leads; one of these compounds is aplysiatoxin. We have isolated various aplysiatoxin derivatives from a M. producens sample obtained from the Okinawan coastal area. The frozen sample was extracted with organic solvents. The ethyl acetate layer was obtained from the crude extracts via liquid-liquid partitioning, then separated by HPLC using a reversed-phase column. Finally, 1.1 mg of the compound was isolated. The chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated with spectroscopic methods, using HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and was revealed to be oscillatoxin I, a new member of the aplysiatoxin family. Oscillatoxin I showed cytotoxicity against the L1210 mouse lymphoma cell line and diatom growth-inhibition activity against the marine diatom Nitzschia amabilis.
Project description:Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) contains a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). This study focused on the composition of alkaloids obtained from transformed hairy root cultures of R. stricta employing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). In the UPLC-MS analyses, a total of 20 TIAs were identified from crude extracts. Eburenine and vincanine were the main alkaloids followed by polar glucoalkaloids, strictosidine lactam and strictosidine. Secodine-type alkaloids, tetrahydrosecodinol, tetrahydro- and dihydrosecodine were detected too. The occurrence of tetrahydrosecodinol was confirmed for the first time for R. stricta. Furthermore, two isomers of yohimbine, serpentine and vallesiachotamine were identified. The study shows that a characteristic pattern of biosynthetically related TIAs can be monitored in Rhazya hairy root crude extract by this chromatographic method.
Project description:Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) elucidates molecular distributions in thin tissue sections. Absolute pixel-to-pixel quantitation has remained a challenge, primarily lacking validation of the appropriate analytical methods. In the present work, isotopically labeled internal standards are applied to tissue sections to maximize quantitative reproducibility and yield accurate quantitative results. We have developed a tissue model for rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, and have tested different methods of applying an isotopically labeled internal standard for MALDI IMS analysis. The application of the standard and subsequently the matrix onto tissue sections resulted in quantitation that was not statistically significantly different from results obtained using HPLC-MS/MS of tissue extracts. Quantitative IMS experiments were performed on liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative images measures the local concentration of RIF in the thin tissue section. Lower concentrations were detected from the blood vessels and around the portal tracts. The quantitative values obtained from these measurements were comparable (>90% similarity) to HPLC-MS/MS results obtained from extracts of the same tissue.
Project description:In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Mori ramulus (Chin.Ph.)-the dried twigs of Morus alba L.-is extensively used as an antirheumatic agent and also finds additional use in asthma therapy. As a pathological high xanthine oxidase (XO, EC 188.8.131.52) activity is strongly correlated to hyperuricemy and gout, standard anti-hyperuremic therapy typically involves XO inhibitors like allopurinol, which often cause adverse effects by inhibiting other enzymes involved in purine metabolism. Mori ramulus may therefore be a promissing source for the development of new antirheumatic therapeutics with less side effects. Coumarins, one of the dominant groups of bioactive constituents of M. alba, have been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The combination of HPLC (DAD) and Q-TOF technique could give excellent separating and good structural characterization abilities which make it suitable to analyze complex multi-herbal extracts in TCM. The aim of this study was to develop a HPLC (DAD)/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS method for the identification and profiling of pharmacologically active coumarin glycosides in Mori ramulus refined extracts for used in TCM. This HPLC (DAD)/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS method provided a rapid and accurate method for identification of coumarin glycosides-including new natural products described here for the first time-in the crude extract of M. alba L. In the course of this project, two novel natural products moriramulosid A (umbelliferone-6-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside) and moriramulosid B (6-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-α-l-mannopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-1-one) were newly discovered and the known natural product Scopolin was identified in M. alba L. for the first time.
Project description:The proanthocyanidins from ethanol extracts (80%, v/v) of Acacia mearnsii (A. mearnsii) bark on chemical-based and cellular antioxidant activity assays as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities were studied. About 77% of oligomeric proanthocyanidins in ethanol extracts of A. mearnsii bark were found by using normal-phase HPLC. In addition, HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analyses indicated that proanthocyanidins from A. mearnsii bark exhibited with a degree of polymerization ranging from 1 to 11. These results of combined antioxidant activity assays, as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities of proanthocyanidins from A. mearnsii bark, indicated an encouraging antioxidant capacity for the high polyphenol content and a potential for use as alternative drugs for lowering the glycemic response.
Project description:The present study reports the diversity of culturable bacteria associated with the puffer fish Gastrophysus spadiceus. During the study, a total of 31 strains affiliated to the genera Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Rahnella, and Psychrobacter were isolated from liver, intestines, and flesh of G. spadiceus. These strains exhibited a diverse range of metabolites as indicated by the HPLC and TLC profiles of the chemical extracts of their fermentation products. Some of these crude extracts showed strong antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial strains. In addition, few crude extracts exhibit insecticidal activity against Artemia salina.