P57Kip2 alterations in adult CFU-E contribute to steroid resistance in Diamond Blackfan anemia
ABSTRACT: Ashley R, Yan H, Wang N, Hale J, Dulmovits BM, Papoin J, Olive ME, Udeshi ND, Carr SA, Vlachosa A, Lipton JM, Da Costa L, Hillyer C, Kinet S, Taylor N, Mohandas N, Narla A, Blanc L. 2019. Despite the effective clinical use of steroids for the treatment of Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), the mechanistic bases via which glucocorticoids regulate human erythropoiesis remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the sensitivity of erythroid differentiation to dexamethasone (Dex) is dependent on the developmental origin of human CD34+ progenitor cells, specifically increasing the expansion of CD34+ progenitors from peripheral blood (PB) but not cord blood (CB). Dexamethasone treatment of erythroid-differentiated PB, but not CB, CD34+ progenitors resulted in the expansion of a novel CD34+CD36+CD71hiCD105med immature colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) population. Furthermore, proteomics analyses revealed the induction of distinct proteins in dexamethasone-treated PB and CB erythroid progenitors. Dexamethasone treatment of PB progenitors resulted in the specific upregulation of p57Kip2, a Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and we identified this induction as critical; shRNA-mediated downregulation of p57Kip2, but not the related p27Kip1, significantly attenuated the impact of dexamethasone on erythroid differentiation and inhibited the expansion of the immature CFU-E subset. Notably, in the context of DBA, we found that steroid resistance was associated with a dysregulated p57Kip2 expression. Altogether, these data identify a novel glucocorticoid-responsive human erythroid progenitor and provide new insights into glucocorticoid-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with DBA.
Project description:Despite the effective clinical use of steroids for the treatment of Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), the mechanisms through which glucocorticoids regulate human erythropoiesis remain poorly understood. We report that the sensitivity of erythroid differentiation to dexamethasone is dependent on the developmental origin of human CD34+ progenitor cells, specifically increasing the expansion of CD34+ progenitors from peripheral blood (PB) but not cord blood (CB). Dexamethasone treatment of erythroid-differentiated PB, but not CB, CD34+ progenitors resulted in the expansion of a newly defined CD34+CD36+CD71hiCD105med immature colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) population. Furthermore, proteomics analyses revealed the induction of distinct proteins in dexamethasone-treated PB and CB erythroid progenitors. Dexamethasone treatment of PB progenitors resulted in the specific upregulation of p57Kip2, a Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and we identified this induction as critical; shRNA-mediated downregulation of p57Kip2, but not the related p27Kip1, significantly attenuated the impact of dexamethasone on erythroid differentiation and inhibited the expansion of the immature CFU-E subset. Notably, in the context of DBA, we found that steroid resistance was associated with dysregulated p57Kip2 expression. Altogether, these data identify a unique glucocorticoid-responsive human erythroid progenitor and provide new insights into glucocorticoid-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with DBA.
Project description:Studies of human erythropoiesis have relied, for the most part, on the in vitro differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) from different sources. Here, we report that despite the common core erythroid program that exists between cord blood (CB)- and peripheral blood (PB)-HSPC induced toward erythroid differentiation in vitro, significant functional differences exist. We undertook a comparative analysis of human erythropoiesis using these two different sources of HSPC. Upon in vitro erythroid differentiation, CB-derived cells proliferated 4-fold more than PB-derived cells. However, CB-derived cells exhibited a delayed kinetics of differentiation, resulting in an increased number of progenitors, notably colony-forming unit (CFU-E). The phenotypes of early erythroid differentiation stages also differed between the two sources with a significantly higher percentage of IL3R- GPA- CD34+ CD36+ cells generated from PB- than CB-HSPCs. This subset was found to generate both burst-forming unit (BFU-E) and CFU-E colonies in colony-forming assays. To further understand the differences between CB- and PB-HSPC, cells at eight stages of erythroid differentiation were sorted from each of the two sources and their transcriptional profiles were compared. We document differences at the CD34, BFU-E, poly- and orthochromatic stages. Genes exhibiting the most significant differences in expression between HSPC sources clustered into cell cycle- and autophagy-related pathways. Altogether, our studies provide a qualitative and quantitative comparative analysis of human erythropoiesis, highlighting the impact of the developmental origin of HSPCs on erythroid differentiation.
Project description:The guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. G proteins are also implicated in erythroid differentiation, and some of them are expressed principally in hematopoietic cells. GPCRs-linked NO/cGMP and p38 MAPK signaling pathways already demonstrated potency for globin gene stimulation. By analyzing erythroid progenitors, derived from hematopoietic cells through in vitro ontogeny, our study intends to determine early markers and signaling pathways of globin gene regulation and their relation to GPCR expression.Human hematopoietic CD34+ progenitors are isolated from fetal liver (FL), cord blood (CB), adult bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) and G-CSF stimulated mobilized PB (mPB), and then differentiated in vitro into erythroid progenitors. We find that growth capacity is most abundant in FL- and CB-derived erythroid cells. The erythroid progenitor cells are sorted as 100% CD71+, but we did not find statistical significance in the variations of CD34, CD36 and GlyA antigens and that confirms similarity in maturation of studied ontogenic periods. During ontogeny, beta-globin gene expression reaches maximum levels in cells of adult blood origin (176 fmol/μg), while gamma-globin gene expression is consistently up-regulated in CB-derived cells (60 fmol/μg). During gamma-globin induction by hydroxycarbamide, we identify stimulated GPCRs (PTGDR, PTGER1) and GPCRs-coupled genes known to be activated via the cAMP/PKA (ADIPOQ), MAPK pathway (JUN) and NO/cGMP (PRPF18) signaling pathways. During ontogeny, GPR45 and ARRDC1 genes have the most prominent expression in FL-derived erythroid progenitor cells, GNL3 and GRP65 genes in CB-derived cells (high gamma-globin gene expression), GPR110 and GNG10 in BM-derived cells, GPR89C and GPR172A in PB-derived cells, and GPR44 and GNAQ genes in mPB-derived cells (high beta-globin gene expression).These results demonstrate the concomitant activity of GPCR-coupled genes and related signaling pathways during erythropoietic stimulation of globin genes. In accordance with previous reports, the stimulation of GPCRs supports the postulated connection between cAMP/PKA and NO/cGMP pathways in activation of γ-globin expression, via JUN and p38 MAPK signaling.
Project description:Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), the precursors of all blood cells, reside predominantly in the bone marrow. Yet, a small proportion (<1%) of phenotypic HSPCs circulates through peripheral blood (PB) at any given time. To date, the detailed characterization of steady-state circulating HSPCs in adult humans remains very poor. Here, we analyse the single-cell composition of the adult human HSPC pool within non-mobilised PB from four healthy donors. 10x scRNA-seq of 51,000 HSPCs from all six donors was paired with single-cell functional analysis using most immature haematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs). We find that long-term functional HSC/MPPs are very rare in non-mobilised PB, and that a large fraction of circulating HSPCs is biased towards the erythroid lineage. In particular, we detect the enrichment of a subset of exclusively erythroid/megakaryocyte-primed quiescent HSC-like cells within the phenotypic PB HSC/MPP compartment.
Project description:Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a congenital erythroblastopenia, is a model disease for the study of erythroid differentiation but is poorly understood. RPS19 is the only gene yet to have been associated with DBA, but its relevance to erythroid differentiation is unclear. The molecular basis for the stimulation of erythropoiesis by glucocorticoids in patients with DBA has not been identified. We demonstrate that targeted degradation of the RPS19 transcript, through retroviral expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), blocks the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells in cultured human CD34(+) cells. Treatment of RPS19-deficient cells with dexamethasone restores erythroid differentiation to normal levels. We investigated the molecular basis of pharmacologic therapies for DBA using oligonucleotide microarrays to survey gene expression in CD34(+) cells treated with combinations of dexamethasone, erythropoietin, stem cell factor, and interleukin-3. Dexamethasone did not alter expression of RPS19 but activated a genetic program that includes a set of key hematopoietic regulatory genes. Genes specific to erythroid progenitor cells were up-regulated by dexamethasone, while genes specific to nonerythroid lineages were down-regulated. Deficiency of RPS19 therefore blocks proliferation of immature erythroid progenitor cells, and dexamethasone activates proliferation of the same cell population through mechanisms independent of RPS19.
Project description:Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent an ideal source for in vitro modeling of erythropoiesis and a potential alternative source for red blood cell transfusions. However, iPS cell-derived erythroid cells predominantly produce ?- and ?-globin without ?-globin production. We recently demonstrated that ES cell-derived sacs (ES sacs), known to express hemangioblast markers, allow for efficient erythroid cell generation with ?-globin production. In this study, we generated several iPS cell lines derived from bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and peripheral blood erythroid progenitors (EPs) from sickle cell disease patients, and evaluated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) generation after iPS sac induction as well as subsequent erythroid differentiation. MSC-derived iPS sacs yielded greater amounts of immature hematopoietic progenitors (VEGFR2?+?GPA-), definitive HSPCs (CD34?+?CD45+), and megakaryoerythroid progenitors (GPA?+?CD41a+), as compared to EP-derived iPS sacs. Erythroid differentiation from MSC-derived iPS sacs resulted in greater amounts of erythroid cells (GPA+) and higher ?-globin (and ?S-globin) expression, comparable to ES sac-derived cells. These data demonstrate that human MSC-derived iPS sacs allow for more efficient erythroid cell generation with higher ?-globin production, likely due to heightened emergence of immature progenitors. Our findings should be important for iPS cell-derived erythroid cell generation. Stem Cells 2017;35:586-596.
Project description:The pathways that regulate the growth of erythroid progenitors are incompletely understood. In a computational analysis of gene expression changes during erythroid ontogeny, the vitamin D receptor (Vdr) nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor gene was identified in fetal and adult stages, but not at the embryonic stage of development. Vdr was expressed in definitive erythroid (EryD) progenitors and was downregulated during their maturation. Activation of Vdr signaling by the vitamin D3 agonist calcitriol increased the outgrowth of EryD colonies from fetal liver and adult bone marrow, maintained progenitor potential, and delayed erythroid maturation, as revealed by clonogenic assays, suspension culture, cell surface phenotype, and gene expression analyses. The early (cKit+CD71lo/neg), but not the late (cKit+CD71hi), EryD progenitor subset of LinnegcKit+ cells was responsive to calcitriol. Culture of cKit+CD71lo/neg progenitors in the presence of both vitamin D3 and glucocorticoid receptor ligands resulted in an increase in proliferation that was at least additive compared with either ligand alone. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated knockdown of Vdr expression abrogated the stimulation of early erythroid progenitor growth by calcitriol. These findings suggest that Vdr has a cell-intrinsic function in early erythroid progenitors. Targeting of downstream components of the Vdr signaling pathway may lead to new approaches for the expansion of erythroid progenitors ex vivo.
Project description:Erythropoiesis requires tight control of expansion, maturation, and survival of erythroid progenitors. Because activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is required for erythropoietin/stem cell factor-induced expansion of erythroid progenitors, we examined the role of the PI3K-controlled Forkhead box, class O (FoxO) subfamily of Forkhead transcription factors. FoxO3a expression and nuclear accumulation increased during erythroid differentiation, whereas untimely induction of FoxO3a activity accelerated differentiation of erythroid progenitors to erythrocytes. We identified B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1)/antiproliferative protein 2 as a FoxO3a target gene in erythroid progenitors. Promoter studies indicated BTG1 as a direct target of FoxO3a. Expression of BTG1 in primary mouse bone marrow cells blocked the outgrowth of erythroid colonies, which required a domain of BTG1 that binds protein arginine methyl transferase 1. During erythroid differentiation, increased arginine methylation coincided with BTG1 expression. Concordantly, inhibition of methyl transferase activity blocked erythroid maturation without affecting expansion of progenitor cells. We propose FoxO3a-controlled expression of BTG1 and subsequent regulation of protein arginine methyl transferase activity as a novel mechanism controlling erythroid expansion and differentiation.
Project description:Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Conditional inactivation of the Nf1 tumor suppressor in hematopoietic cells of mice causes a progressive MPN that accurately models JMML and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We characterized the effects of Nf1 loss on immature hematopoietic populations and investigated treatment with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (hereafter called 901). Somatic Nf1 inactivation resulted in a marked expansion of immature and lineage-committed myelo-erythroid progenitors and ineffective erythropoiesis. Treatment with 901 induced a durable drop in leukocyte counts, enhanced erythropoietic function, and markedly reduced spleen sizes in mice with MPN. MEK inhibition also restored a normal pattern of erythroid differentiation and greatly reduced extramedullary hematopoiesis. Remarkably, genetic analysis revealed the persistence of Nf1-deficient hematopoietic cells, indicating that MEK inhibition modulates the proliferation and differentiation of Nf1 mutant cells in vivo rather than eliminating them. These data provide a rationale for performing clinical trials of MEK inhibitors in patients with JMML and CMML.
Project description:Erythropoiesis is a robust process of cellular expansion and maturation occurring in murine bone marrow and spleen. We previously determined that sublethal irradiation, unlike bleeding or hemolysis, depletes almost all marrow and splenic erythroblasts but leaves peripheral erythrocytes intact. To better understand the erythroid stress response, we analyzed progenitor, precursor, and peripheral blood compartments of mice post-4 Gy total body irradiation. Erythroid recovery initiates with rapid expansion of late-stage erythroid progenitors-day 3 burst-forming units and colony-forming units, associated with markedly increased plasma erythropoietin (EPO). Although initial expansion of late-stage erythroid progenitors is dependent on EPO, this cellular compartment becomes sharply down-regulated despite elevated EPO levels. Loss of EPO-responsive progenitors is associated temporally with a wave of maturing erythroid precursors in marrow and with emergence of circulating erythroid progenitors and subsequent reestablishment of splenic erythropoiesis. These circulating progenitors selectively engraft and mature in irradiated spleen after short-term transplantation, supporting the concept that bone marrow erythroid progenitors migrate to spleen. We conclude that sublethal radiation is a unique model of endogenous stress erythropoiesis, with specific injury to the extravascular erythron, expansion and maturation of EPO-responsive late-stage progenitors exclusively in marrow, and subsequent reseeding of extramedullary sites.