ABSTRACT: Commercial standards for 8 antibiotics produced by Streptomyces used for method validation for the untargeted metabolomics workflow UmetaFlow.
Project description:Streptomycetes are soil microorganisms with the potential to produce a broad spectrum of secondary metabolities. The production of antibiotics is accompanied by a decrease in protein synthesis, which raises the question of how these bacteria survived the transition from the primary to the secondary metabolism. Translating ribosomes incapable to properly elongate or terminate polypeptide chain activate bacterial trans-translation system. Abundance and stability of the tmRNA during growth of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus producing kirromycin and streptomycin, respectively, was analysed. The level of tmRNA is mostly proportional to the activity of the translational system. We demonstrate that the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of produced antibiotics to the cultures from the beginning of the exponential phase of growth leads to an increase in tmRNA levels and to an incorporation of amino acids into the tag-peptides at trans-translation of stalled ribosomes. These findings suggest that produced antibiotics induce tmRNA that facilitate reactivation of stalled complex of ribosomes and maintain viability. The effect of antibiotics that inhibit the cell-wall turnover, DNA, RNA or protein synthesis on the level of tmRNA was examined. Antibiotics interfering with ribosomal target sites are more effective at stimulation of the tmRNA level in streptomycetes examined than those affecting the synthesis of DNA, RNA or the cell wall.
Project description:When Streptomyces violaceoruber grows together with Streptomyces sp. MG7-G1, it reacts with strongly induced droplet production on its aerial mycelium. Initially the metabolite profile of droplets from S. violaceoruber in co-culture with Streptomyces sp. MG7-G1 was compared to samples from S. violaceoruber in single-culture by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Then, the exudate from agar plates of co-cultures and single cultures (after freezing and thawing) was also analysed. Several compounds were only observed when S. violaceoruber was grown in co-culture. Based on their high-resolution ESI mass spectra and their comparable retention times to the calcium-dependent antibiotics (CDAs) produced by S. violaceoruber, the new compounds were suspected to be deacylated calcium-dependent antibiotics (daCDAs), lacking the 2,3-epoxyhexanoyl residue of CDAs. This was verified by detailed analysis of the MS/MS spectra of the daCDAs in comparison to the CDAs. The major CDA compounds present in calcium ion-supplemented agar medium of co-cultures were daCDAs, thus suggesting that Streptomyces sp. MG7-G1 expresses a deacylase that degrades CDAs.
Project description:Clavulanic acid is a bacterial specialized metabolite, which inhibits certain serine ?-lactamases, enzymes that inactivate ?-lactam antibiotics to confer resistance. Due to this activity, clavulanic acid is widely used in combination with penicillin and cephalosporin (?-lactam) antibiotics to treat infections caused by ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. Clavulanic acid is industrially produced by fermenting Streptomyces clavuligerus, as large-scale chemical synthesis is not commercially feasible. Other than S. clavuligerus, Streptomyces jumonjinensis and Streptomyces katsurahamanus also produce clavulanic acid along with cephamycin C, but information regarding their genome sequences is not available. In addition, the Streptomyces contain many biosynthetic gene clusters thought to be "cryptic," as the specialized metabolites produced by them are not known. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of S. jumonjinensis and S. katsurahamanus, and examined their metabolomes using untargeted mass spectrometry along with S. clavuligerus for comparison. We analyzed the biosynthetic gene cluster content of the three species to correlate their biosynthetic capacities, by matching them with the specialized metabolites detected in the current study. It was recently reported that S. clavuligerus can produce the plant-associated metabolite naringenin, and we describe more examples of such specialized metabolites in extracts from the three Streptomyces species. Detailed comparisons of the biosynthetic gene clusters involved in clavulanic acid (and cephamycin C) production were also performed, and based on our analyses, we propose the core set of genes responsible for producing this medicinally important metabolite.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. Among bacterial resistance, ?-lactam antibiotic resistance is the most prevailing and threatening area. Antibiotic resistance is thought to originate in antibiotic-producing bacteria such as Streptomyces. In this review, ?-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in Streptomyces are explored mainly by phylogenetic analyses from the viewpoint of self-resistance. Although PBPs are more important than ?-lactamases in self-resistance, phylogenetically diverse ?-lactamases exist in Streptomyces. While class A ?-lactamases are mostly detected in their enzyme activity, over two to five times more classes B and C ?-lactamase genes are identified at the whole genomic level. These genes can subsequently be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. As for PBPs, two pairs of low affinity PBPs protect Streptomyces from the attack of self-producing and other environmental ?-lactam antibiotics. PBPs with PASTA domains are detectable only in class A PBPs in Actinobacteria with the exception of Streptomyces. None of the Streptomyces has PBPs with PASTA domains. However, one of class B PBPs without PASTA domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase with four PASTA domains are located in adjacent positions in most Streptomyces. These class B type PBPs are involved in the spore wall synthesizing complex and probably in self-resistance. Lastly, this paper emphasizes that the resistance mechanisms in Streptomyces are very hard to deal with, despite great efforts in finding new antibiotics.
Project description:Natural products from marine actinomycetes remain an important resource for drug discovery, many of which are produced by the genus, Streptomyces. However, in standard laboratory conditions, specific gene clusters in microbes have long been considered silent or covert. Thus, various stress techniques activated latent gene clusters leading to isolation of potential metabolites. This study focused on the analysis of two new angucycline antibiotics isolated from the culture filtrate of a marine Streptomyces pratensis strain NA-ZhouS1, named, stremycin A (1) and B (2) which were further determined based on spectroscopic techniques such as high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-MS), 1D, and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. In addition, four other known compounds, namely, 2-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclohexyl)-6-oxo-tetrahydro-pyran-4yl]-acetamide (3), cyclo[l-(4-hydroxyprolinyl)-l-leucine] (4), 2-methyl-3H-quinazoline-4-one (5), and menthane derivative, 3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-isopropyl-10,12-dioxatricyclo[188.8.131.52]dodec-4-en-8-one (6) were obtained and elucidated by means of 1D NMR spectrometry. Herein, we describe the "Metal Stress Technique" applied in the discovery of angucyclines, a distinctive class of antibiotics that are commonly encoded in microbiomes but have never been reported in "Metal Stress" based discovery efforts. Novel antibiotics 1 and 2 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonia, and Escherichia coli with equal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 16 µg/mL, while these antibiotics showed inhibition against Bacillus subtilis at MIC value of approximately 8?16 µg/mL, respectively. As a result, the outcome of this investigation revealed that metal stress is an effective technique in unlocking the biosynthetic potential and resulting production of novel antibiotics.
Project description:Fifty seven soil-borne actinomycete strains were assessed for the antibiotic production. Two of the most active isolates, designed as Streptomyces ST-13 and DK-15 exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial activity and therefore they were selected for HPLC fractionation against the most suppressed bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ST-13) and Chromobacterium violaceum (DK-15). LC/MS analysis of extracts showed the presence of polyketides factumycin (DK15) and tetrangomycin (ST13). The taxonomic position of the antibiotic-producing actinomycetes was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates matched those described for members of the genus Streptomyces. DK-15 strain exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Streptomyces globosus DSM-40815 (T) and Streptomyces toxytricini DSM-40178 (T) and ST-13 strain to Streptomyces ederensis DSM-40741 (T) and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes DSM-40073 (T). For the proper identification, MALDI-TOF/MS profile of whole-cell proteins led to the identification of S. globosus DK-15 (accession number: KX527570) and S. ederensis ST13 (accession number: KX527568). To our knowledge, there is no report about the production of these antibiotics by S.globosus and S. ederensis, thus isolates DK15 and ST13 identified as S. globosus DK-15 and S.ederensis ST-13 can be considered as new sources of these unique antibacterial metabolites.
Project description:In our previous studies, the production of four bioactive molecules by Streptomyces sp. PAL114 in complex ISP2 broth medium has been described. Three of these molecules belong to the angucycline family. In this study, two novel antibiotics belonging to the same family were produced by strain PAL114 on M2 synthetic medium containing L-tryptophan as precursor. These antibiotics, named mzabimycins A and B, were intracellular and produced only in the presence of L-tryptophan. After four days of culturing PAL114 in the M2 medium, the bioactive compounds were extracted from mycelium with methanol and then analyzed by HPLC on reverse phase C18 column. Two active purplish blue fractions were purified. The chemical structures of these molecules were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses (1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectra). They were identified to be novel angucycline derivative antibiotics. The pure molecules showed activity against some pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria which have multiple antibiotic resistance, such as Staphylococcus aureus MRSA 639c and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 13932.
Project description:Actinomycetes are known for producing diverse secondary metabolites. Combining genomics with untargeted data-dependent tandem MS and molecular networking, we characterized the secreted metabolome of the tunicamycin producer Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882. The genome harbors 128 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters. We detected >1,000 distinct secreted metabolites in culture supernatants, only 22 of which were identified based on standards and public spectral libraries. S. chartreusis adapts the secreted metabolome to cultivation conditions. A number of metabolites are produced iron dependently, among them 17 desferrioxamine siderophores aiding in iron acquisition. Eight previously unknown members of this long-known compound class are described. A single desferrioxamine synthesis gene cluster was detected in the genome, yet different sets of desferrioxamines are produced in different media. Additionally, a polyether ionophore, differentially produced by the calcimycin biosynthesis cluster, was discovered. This illustrates that metabolite output of a single biosynthetic machine can be exquisitely regulated not only with regard to product quantity but also with regard to product range. Compared with chemically defined medium, in complex medium, total metabolite abundance was higher, structural diversity greater, and the average molecular weight almost doubled. Tunicamycins, for example, were only produced in complex medium. Extrapolating from this study, we anticipate that the larger part of bacterial chemistry, including chemical structures, ecological functions, and pharmacological potential, is yet to be uncovered.
Project description:The exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase of Streptomyces R39 is inhibited by beta-lactam antibiotics according to the same general scheme of reaction as the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase of Streptomyces R61. However, the values for the kinetic constants involved in the reaction are very different for the two enzymes and provide an explanation for the observation that the R39 enzyme is more sensitive to beta-lactam antibiotics than the R61 enzyme. Further, particular beta-lactams influence the kinetic constants to different extents depending on the source of the enzyme, so that a physical basis for the spectrum of antibiotic activity against particular enzyme systems is provided.
Project description:?-Lactamase inhibitors have emerged as an effective alternative to reduce the effects of resistance against ?-lactam antibiotics. The Streptomyces genus is known for being an exceptional natural source of antimicrobials and ?-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, which is largely applied in clinical practice. To protect against the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, new antibiotics and ?-lactamase inhibitors need to be discovered and developed. This review will cover an update about the main ?-lactamase inhibitors producers belonging to the Streptomyces genus; advanced methods, such as genetic and metabolic engineering, to enhance inhibitor production compared with wild-type strains; and fermentation and purification processes. Moreover, clinical practice and commercial issues are discussed. The commitment of companies and governments to develop innovative strategies and methods to improve the access to new, efficient, and potentially cost-effective microbial products to combat the antimicrobial resistance is also highlighted.