The NFIB/CARM1 Partnership is a Therapeutic Target for Small Cell Lung Cancer
ABSTRACT: This project identified NFI family members as CARM1 substrates. NFIB was previously reported to play a critical role in the development of small cell lung cancer. We provided evidence that the arginine methylation of NFIB is required for its oncogenic function in small cell lung cancer.
Project description:Oncogenic Kras mutations are one of the most common alterations in non-small cell lung cancer and are associated with poor response to treatment and reduced survival. Driver oncogenes, such as Kras are now appreciated for their ability to promote tumor growth via up-regulation of anabolic pathways. Therefore, we wanted to identify metabolic vulnerabilities in Kras-mutant lung cancer. Using the Kras LSL-G12D lung cancer model, we show that mutant Kras drives a lipogenic gene-expression program. Stable-isotope analysis reveals that mutant Kras promotes de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro and in vivo. The importance of fatty acid synthesis in Kras-induced tumorigenesis was evident by decreased tumor formation in Kras LSL-G12D mice after treatment with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor. Importantly, with gain and loss of function models of mutant Kras, we demonstrate that mutant Kras potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of several fatty acid synthesis inhibitors. These studies highlight the potential to target mutant Kras tumors by taking advantage of the lipogenic phenotype induced by mutant Kras.-Singh, A., Ruiz, C., Bhalla, K., Haley, J. A., Li, Q. K., Acquaah-Mensah, G., Montal, E., Sudini, K. R., Skoulidis, F., Wistuba, I. I., Papadimitrakopoulou, V., Heymach, J. V., Boros, L. G., Gabrielson, E., Carretero, J., Wong, K.-k., Haley, J. D., Biswal, S., Girnun, G. D. De novo lipogenesis represents a therapeutic target in mutant Kras non-small cell lung cancer.
Project description:Mammalian Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases are master regulators of mitotic progression and are frequently overexpressed in human cancers. Among the three members of the Aurora kinase family (Aurora-A, -B, and -C), Aurora-A and Aurora-B are expressed at detectable levels in somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division. Aberrant Aurora-A kinase activity has been implicated in oncogenic transformation through the development of chromosomal instability and tumor cell heterogeneity. Recent studies also reveal a novel non-mitotic role of Aurora-A activity in promoting tumor progression through activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition reprograming resulting in the genesis of tumor-initiating cells. Therefore, Aurora-A kinase represents an attractive target for cancer therapeutics, and the development of small molecule inhibitors of Aurora-A oncogenic activity may improve the clinical outcomes of cancer patients. In the present review, we will discuss mitotic and non-mitotic functions of Aurora-A activity in oncogenic transformation and tumor progression. We will also review the current clinical studies, evaluating small molecule inhibitors of Aurora-A activity and their efficacy in the management of cancer patients.
Project description:KRAS mutations are one of the most common driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and finding druggable target molecules to inhibit oncogenic KRAS signaling is a significant challenge in NSCLC therapy. We recently identified epiregulin (EREG) as one of several putative transcriptional targets of oncogenic KRAS signaling in both KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells and immortalized bronchial epithelial cells expressing ectopic mutant KRAS. In the current study, we found that EREG is overexpressed in NSCLCs harboring KRAS, BRAF or EGFR mutations compared with NSCLCs with wild-type KRAS/BRAF/EGFR. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting mutant KRAS, but not an siRNA targeting wild-type KRAS, significantly reduced EREG expression in KRAS-mutant and EREG-overexpressing NSCLC cell lines. In these cell lines, EREG expression was downregulated by MEK and ERK inhibitors. Importantly, EREG expression significantly correlated with KRAS expression or KRAS copy number in KRAS-mutant NSCLC cell lines. Further expression analysis using 89 NSCLC specimens showed that EREG was predominantly expressed in NSCLCs with pleural involvement, lymphatic permeation or vascular invasion and in KRAS-mutant adenocarcinomas. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that EREG expression is an independent prognostic marker and EREG overexpression in combination with KRAS mutations was associated with an unfavorable prognosis for lung adenocarcinoma patients. In KRAS-mutant and EREG overexpressing NSCLC cells, siRNA-mediated EREG silencing inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that oncogenic KRAS-induced EREG overexpression contributes to an aggressive phenotype and could be a promising therapeutic target in oncogenic KRAS-driven NSCLC.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) plays critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes, including tumorigenesis. By screening a library of small chemical compounds, we identified eight compounds that selectively inhibit the PRMT5 enzymatic activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 6 ?M. Molecular docking simulation and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that identified compounds target the substrate-binding site in PRMT5. Treatment of lung cancer cells with identified inhibitors led to inhibition of the symmetrical arginine methylation of SmD3 and histones and the cellular proliferation. Oral administration of the inhibitor demonstrated antitumor activity in a lung tumor xenograft model. Thus, identified PRMT5-specific small-molecule inhibitors would help elucidate the biological roles of PRMT5 and serve as lead compounds for future drug development.
Project description:In this study, we investigated whether proteins that are involved in cytokinesis are potential targets for therapy of lung cancer. We find that the microtubule-associated protein PRC1 (protein required for cytokinesis 1), which plays a key role in organizing anti-parallel microtubule in the central spindle in cytokinesis, is overexpressed in lung cancer cell lines compared to normal cells. Increased expression of PRC1 is correlated with a poor prognosis of human lung adenocarcinoma patients. Lentiviral delivered, inducible RNAi of PRC1 demonstrated that proliferation of lung cancer cell lines strongly depends on PRC1. Significantly, we also show that PRC1 is required for tumorigenesis in vivo using a mouse model for non-small cell lung cancer driven by oncogenic K-RAS and loss of p53. When PRC1 is depleted by in vivo RNA interference, lung tumor formation is significantly reduced. Although PRC1 has been suggested to regulate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in cancer cells, we find no evidence for a role of PRC1 in this pathway in lung cancer. Instead, we show that the depletion of PRC1 results in a strong increase in bi- and multinuclear cells due to defects in cytokinesis. This ultimately leads to apoptosis and senescence. Together these data establish PRC1 as a potential target for therapy of lung cancer.
Project description:Protein arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification that plays a pivotal role in cellular regulation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the modification of target proteins by adding methyl groups to the guanidino nitrogen atoms of arginine residues. Protein arginine methylation takes part in epigenetic and cellular regulation and has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases, and tumor progression. Aberrant expression of PRMTs is associated with the development of brain tumors such as glioblastoma and medulloblastoma. Identifying PRMTs as plausible contributors to tumorigenesis has led to preclinical and clinical investigations of PRMT inhibitors for glioblastoma and medulloblastoma therapy. In this review, we discuss the role of arginine methylation in cancer biology and provide an update on the use of small molecule inhibitors of PRMTs to treat glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, and other cancers.
Project description:Skp1 is an essential adaptor protein of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein complex and is able to stabilize the conformation of some ubiquitin E3 ligases. However, the role Skp1 plays during tumorigenesis remains unclear and Skp1-targeting agent is lacking. Here we showed that Skp1 was overexpressed in 36/64 (56.3%) of non-small cell lung cancers, and elevated Skp1 was associated with poor prognosis. By structure-based high-throughput virtual screening, we found some Skp1-targeting molecules including a natural compound 6-O-angeloylplenolin (6-OAP). 6-OAP bound Skp1 at sites critical to Skp1-Skp2 interaction, leading to dissociation and proteolysis of oncogenic E3 ligases NIPA, Skp2, and ?-TRCP, and accumulation of their substrates Cyclin B1, P27 and E-Cadherin. 6-OAP induced prometaphase arrest and exerted potent anti-lung cancer activity in two murine models and showed low adverse effect. These results indicate that Skp1 is critical to lung cancer pathogenesis, and Skp1 inhibitor inactivates crucial oncogenic E3 ligases and exhibits significant therapeutic potentials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:LncRNA SNHG10 has been reported to be an oncogenic lncRNA in liver cancer. However, its roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. METHODS:Tumor and paired non-tumor tissues were harvested from 62 NSCLC patients. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of SNHG10 and miR-21 in tissues. Overexpression experiments were used to evaluate the interaction between SNHG10 and miR-21 in NSCLC cells. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cell proliferation. RESULTS:We observed the expression of SNHG10 was down-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that in non-tumor tissues. Moreover, we found that high expression levels of SNHG10 predicted favorable survival of NSCLC patients, and the expression of miR-21 were increased in NSCLC and inversely correlated with SNHG10 expression. In NSCLC cells, overexpression of SNHG10 resulted in increased miR-21 gene methylation and decreased miR-21 expression. Moreover, overexpression of SNHG10 attenuated the enhancing effect of miR-21 overexpression on cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS:SNHG10 may involve in NSCLC cell proliferation by regulating the miR-21 gene methylation.
Project description:Activating mutations in KRAS are prevalent in cancer, but therapies targeted to oncogenic RAS have been ineffective to date. These results argue that targeting downstream effectors of RAS will be an alternative route for blocking RAS-driven oncogenic pathways. We and others have shown that oncogenic RAS activates the NF-?B transcription factor pathway and that KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis is suppressed by expression of a degradation-resistant form of the I?B? inhibitor or by genetic deletion of IKK? or the RELA/p65 subunit of NF-?B. Here, genetic and pharmacological approaches were utilized to inactivate IKK in human primary lung epithelial cells transformed by KRAS, as well as KRAS mutant lung cancer cell lines. Administration of the highly specific IKK? inhibitor Compound A (CmpdA) led to NF-?B inhibition in different KRAS mutant lung cells and siRNA-mediated knockdown of IKK? or IKK? reduced activity of the NF-?B canonical pathway. Next, we determined that both IKK? and IKK? contribute to oncogenic properties of KRAS mutant lung cells, particularly when p53 activity is disrupted. Based on these results, CmpdA was tested for potential therapeutic intervention in the Kras-induced lung cancer mouse model (LSL-Kras (G12D)) combined with loss of p53 (LSL-Kras (G12D)/p53 (fl/fl)). CmpdA treatment was well tolerated and mice treated with this IKK? inhibitor presented smaller and lower grade tumors than mice treated with placebo. Additionally, IKK? inhibition reduced inflammation and angiogenesis. These results support the concept of targeting IKK as a therapeutic approach for oncogenic RAS-driven tumors with altered p53 activity.
Project description:Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. In spite of the progress made in past decades, further studies to improve current therapy for lung cancer are required. Dynamically controlled by methyltransferases and demethylases, methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histone proteins regulates chromatin organization and thereby gene transcription. Aberrant alterations of histone methylation have been demonstrated to be associated with the progress of multiple cancers including lung cancer. Inhibitors of methyltransferases and demethylases have exhibited anti-tumor activities in lung cancer, and multiple lead candidates are under clinical trials. Here, we summarize how histone methylation functions in lung cancer, highlighting most recent progresses in small molecular inhibitors for lung cancer treatment.