ABSTRACT: This experiment tests the consequence of a mutation at the FatB gene (At1g08510) in the wound-response of Arabidopsis. The FatB mutant allele (fatb KD J. Ohlrogge (Plant Cell 2003, Vol 15, 1020-1033)) was obtained from Dr. Katayonn Dehesh, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA. This allele is in the Ws background.The standardized growth conditions are as follows: 1. Seeds (between 14 and 16) are sown on media in 100 x 100 x 15mm square Falcon Petri Dishes (Fisher Scientific, catalogue #08-757-11A). Seeds were arranged on the plates in a single horizontal line at the 1-cm mark from the top of the plate.2. Each plate contains between 20 and 25-ml of sterile MS media containing 0.1% (w/v) sucrose.3. Prior to sowing, seeds were sterilized by treating for 1 minute at room temperature with a 300-l solution of 50% (v/v) ethanol, this solution was removed and replaced with a 300-l solution consisting of 1% (v/v) Tween 20 (Fischer BioReagents, catalogue #BP33750), and 50% (v/v) bleach solution (Clorox), and incubated at room temperature for 10-minutes. The seeds were then washed with three changes of 0.3-ml of sterile water.
Project description:This experiment tests the effect of individual mutations on the metabolome of Arabidopsis. The standardized growth conditions are as follows: 1. Seeds (between 14 and 16) are sown on media in 100 x 100 x 15mm square Falcon Petri Dishes (Fisher Scientific, catalogue #08-757-11A). Seeds were arranged on the plates in a single horizontal line at the 1-cm mark from the top of the plate. 2. Each plate contains between 20 and 25-ml of sterile MS media containing 0.1% (w/v) sucrose. 3. Prior to sowing, seeds were sterilized by treating for 1-minute at room temperature with a 300-l solution of 50% (v/v) ethanol, this solution was removed and replaced with a 300-l solution consisting of 1% (v/v) Tween 20 (Fischer BioReagents, catalogue #BP33750), and 50% (v/v) bleach solution (Clorox), and incubated at room temperature for 10-minutes. The seeds were then washed with three changes of 0.3-ml of sterile water. 4. Upon sowing with seeds, the plates were wrapped with Micropore tape (3M Health Care, catalogue #1530-0), and then stored horizontally for 4-days at 4 °C, with illumination of 1 mol/m2. 5. On the 5th day, plates were moved to the growth room, and held in a vertical position in Plexi-glass holders for 17-days this growth room condition is labeled in Table I. 6. On 18th day Petri plates were opened and the aerial portions of these plants were harvested immediately upon plate opening. 7. Upon harvesting, plant material was quenched by immersion in liquid nitrogen and stored at 70 °C.
Project description:AuNPs ranging in 20 to 300 nm size were synthesized at a room temperature using Yucca filamentosa leaf extract. Diverse nanomaterial morphologies were obtained by varying the extract concentration, reaction pH, and temperature. While low volumes of extract (0.25 and 0.5 mL) induced the formation of microscale Au sheets with edge length greater than 1 ?m, high volumes yielded spherical particles ranging from 20 to 200 nm. Varying pH of the solution significantly influenced the particle shape with the production of largely spherical particles at pH 5 to 6 and truncated triangles at pH 2. Separation of multidimensional nanostructures was achieved using a novel method of sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The catalytic function of Yucca-derived AuNPs was demonstrated by degradation of a wastewater dye: methylene blue using spectrophotometric measurements over time. Treatment with Au nanosheets and spheres demonstrated methylene blue degradation approximately 100% greater than the activity in control at 60 min.
Project description:Copper nanoparticles (NPs) with an average particle diameter of 50-60?nm were successfully obtained by reducing an aqueous solution of a copper(II)-nitrilotriacetic acid complex with an aqueous hydrazine solution at room temperature under an air atmosphere. Copper NP-based nanopastes were printed onto a glass substrate using a metal screen mask and pressureless sintered under a nitrogen atmosphere at 200?°C for 30?min. The electrical resistivity of the resulting copper electrode was 16 ???·?cm. For a metal-to-metal bonding test, copper nanopaste was printed on an oxygen-free copper plate, another oxygen-free copper plate was placed on top, and the bonding strength between the copper plates when pressureless sintered under a nitrogen atmosphere at 200?°C for 30?min was 39?MPa. TEM observations confirmed that highly crystalline metal bonding occurred between the copper NPs and the copper plate to introduce the ultrahigh strength. The developed copper NPs could provide promising advances as nanopastes for sustainable fabrication of copper electrodes and die attachment materials for the production of next-generation power semiconductors.
Project description:In this paper, ultrasonic-enhanced replacement of lead by zinc in lead leaching solution was studied. The effects of reaction time, rotational speed, temperature, concentration of leaching solution and the ratio of the surface area of the zinc plate immersed in the leaching solution to the volume of leaching solution (S : V) were studied under both conventional and ultrasonic conditions. The optimum ultrasonic-assisted replacement conditions were as follows: the S : V of 0.04 (4 cm2 100 ml-1), reaction temperature of 30°C, replacement time of 30 min and the concentration of leaching solution is 5 g l-1, leading to a lead replacement rate of 94.84%. Compared with the conventional replacement process, the reaction time of ultrasonic-enhanced substitution could be reduced to one half, and the demand of reaction temperature, leaching solution concentration and other conditions were decreased accordingly. Introducing ultrasonic into the replacement reaction is promising to reduce the energy consumption in the hydrometallurgical industry also caters to the demands of environment protection.
Project description:Amylolytic bacterial isolates were obtained by starch-agar plate method from municipal solid wastes. Six amylolytic bacteria were isolated and the best two isolates, named as DY and W1, were selected based on clear zone ratio. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified DY and W1 isolates as Chryseobacterium sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. Amylase production was optimized using basal media. The maximum level of amylase production was achieved from Chryseobacterium and Bacillus isolates after 60 h and 48 h of cultivation, respectively. The optimal temperature, initial pH of the media, agitation and inoculum size were determined for the both isolates. Increased amylase production was observed when basal media were substituted with organic carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum pH and temperature for amylase activity of the crude amylase of Chryseobacterium sp. were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively and those of amylase from Bacillus sp. were pH 7.0 and 50 °C, correspondingly. The crude amylase from the Chryseobacterium sp. was stable at pH 5.0-6.0 and up to 40 °C but that from Bacillus sp. was stable at pH 7.0 and up to 30 °C. Amylases from both the isolates lost ∼50% activity when stored at room temperature for two days. Under the optimized fermentation conditions both Chryseobacterium and Bacillus isolates produced almost the similar amount of amylase with organic kitchen wastes compared to the basal media. Results reported herein support the notion that Chryseobacterium sp. and Bacillus sp. can be used to produce industrially important amylases by utilizing organic kitchen wastes.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of a-type wor1 deleted cells and mixed a-type and alpha-type opaque cells under in vitro biofilm-forming conditions. Specifically, they were grown for two days at room temperature in a 12-well poly-styrene plate containing 1 ml of Lee's + Glucose liquid media. Samples were hybridized against a universal mixed reference sample of a-type cells in white and opaque states grown in Spider liquid media. 2 condition experiment: white wor1-deletion mutant a-type cells, opaque mixed a-type and alpha-type cells; two biological replicates each.
Project description:As-received BaTiO₃ nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO₃ powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.
Project description:We have examined real-time, in situ hybridization detection of target DNA (tDNA) in a buffer solution and in urine using 8 μm-thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) about 1.1-1.2 mm long and 0.45 mm wide with improved 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation and a new multiple-parabola (>50) resonance peak position fitting algorithm. With probe DNA (pDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first width extension mode (WEM) resonance frequency shift we detected tDNA in real time at concentration as low as 1 × 10(-19) M in urine (100 zM) with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 13 without DNA isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30 min. The present multiple-parabola fitting algorithm increased the detection of SNR by about 10 times compared to those obtained using the raw data and by about 5 times compared to those obtained using single parabola fitting. The detection was validated by in situ follow-up detection and subsequent visualization of fluorescent reporter microspheres (FRMs) coated with reporter DNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe pDNA.
Project description:The radiation damage rates to crystals of 15 model macromolecular structures were studied using an automated radiation sensitivity characterization procedure. The diffracted intensity variation with dose is described by a two-parameter model. This model includes a strong resolution-independent decay specific to room-temperature measurements along with a linear increase in overall Debye-Waller factors. An equivalent representation of sensitivity via a single parameter, normalized half-dose, is introduced. This parameter varies by an order of magnitude between the different structures studied. The data show a correlation of crystal radiation sensitivity with crystal solvent content but no dose-rate dependency was detected in the range 0.05-300 kGy?s(-1). The results of the crystal characterization are suitable for either optimal planning of room-temperature data collection or in situ crystallization plate screening experiments.
Project description:High-performance ZnO-Pr6O11 thin-film varistors were fabricated simply by hot-dipping oxygen-deficient zinc oxide thin films in Pr6O11 powder. The films had a composition of ZnO0.81 and a thickness of about 200?nm, which were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering a sintered zinc oxide ceramic target. Special attention was paid on the temperature dependence of the varistors. In 50?min with hot-dipping temperature increased from 300-700?°C, the nonlinear coefficient (?) of the varistors increased, but with higher temperature it decreased again. Correspondingly, the leakage current (IL) decreased first and then increased, owing mainly to the formation and destroying of complete zinc oxide/Pr6O11 grain boundaries. The breakdown field (E1mA) decreased monotonously from 0.02217 to 0.01623?V/nm with increasing temperature (300-800 °C), due to the decreased number of effective grain boundaries in the varistors. The varistors prepared at 700?°C exhibited the optimum nonlinear properties with the highest ??=?39.29, lowest IL?=?0.02736?mA/cm2, and E1mA?=?0.01757?V/nm. And after charge-discharge at room temperature for 1000 times, heating at 100 or 250?°C for up to 100?h, or applying at up to 250?°C, the varistors still performed well. Such nanoscaled thin-film varistors will be very promising in electrical/electronic devices working at low voltage.