High Resolution orbittrap Mass Spectrometer to measure low abundance isotope enrichment in individual muscle proteins
ABSTRACT: Stable isotope-labeled amino acids have long been used to measure the fractional synthesis rate of proteins, although the mass spectrometry platforms used for such analyses have changed throughout the years. More recently, tandem mass spectrometers such as triple quadrupoles have been accepted as the standard platform for enrichment measurement due to their sensitivity and the enhanced specificity offered by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments. The limit in the utility of such platforms for enrichment analysis occurs when measuring very low levels of enrichment from small amounts of sample, particularly proteins isolated from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE), where interference from contaminant ions impact the sensitivity of the measurement. We therefore applied a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer to the analysis of [ring-13C6]-phenylalanine enrichment in individual muscle proteins isolated with 2D-GE. Comparison of samples analyzed on both platforms revealed that the high resolution MS has significantly improved sensitivity relative to the triple quadrupole MS at very low-level enrichments due to its ability to resolve interferences in the m/z dimension.
Project description:Stable isotope-labeled amino acids have long been used to measure the fractional synthesis rate of proteins, although the mass spectrometry platforms used for such analyses have changed throughout the years. More recently, tandem mass spectrometers such as triple quadrupoles have been accepted as the standard platform for enrichment measurement due to their sensitivity and the enhanced specificity offered by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments. The limit in the utility of such platforms for enrichment analysis occurs when measuring very low levels of enrichment from small amounts of sample, particularly proteins isolated from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE), where interference from contaminant ions impact the sensitivity of the measurement. We therefore applied a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer to the analysis of [ring-13C6]-phenylalanine enrichment in individual muscle proteins isolated with 2D-GE. Comparison of samples analyzed on both platforms revealed that the high resolution MS has significantly improved sensitivity relative to the triple quadrupole MS at very low-level enrichments due to its ability to resolve interferences in the m/z dimension.
Project description:Over the past few years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a technology to complement and potentially replace standard immunoassays in routine clinical core laboratories. Application of mass spectrometry to protein and peptide measurement can provide advantages including high sensitivity, the ability to multiplex analytes, and high specificity at the amino acid sequence level. In our previous study, we demonstrated excellent reproducibility of mass spectrometry-selective reaction monitoring (MS-SRM) assays when applying standardized standard operating procedures (SOPs) to measure synthetic peptides in a complex sample, as lack of reproducibility has been a frequent criticism leveled at the use of mass spectrometers in the clinical laboratory compared to immunoassays. Furthermore, an important caveat of SRM-based assays for proteins is that many low-abundance analytes require some type of enrichment before detection with MS. This adds a level of complexity to the procedure and the potential for irreproducibility increases, especially across different laboratories with different operators. The purpose of this study was to test the interlaboratory reproducibility of SRM assays with various upfront enrichment strategies and different types of clinical samples (representing real-world body fluids commonly encountered in routine clinical laboratories). Three different, previously published enrichment strategies for low-abundance analytes and a no-enrichment strategy for high-abundance analytes were tested across four different laboratories using different liquid chromatography-SRM (LC-SRM) platforms and previously developed SOPs. The results demonstrated that these assays were indeed reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 30% for the measurement of important clinical proteins across all four laboratories in real world samples.
Project description:Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of core histones work synergistically to fine tune chromatin structure and function, generating a so-called histone code that can be interpreted by a variety of chromatin interacting proteins. We report a novel online two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) platform for high-throughput and sensitive characterization of histone PTMs at the intact protein level. The platform enables unambiguous identification of 708 histone isoforms from a single 2D LC-MS/MS analysis of 7.5 µg purified core histones. The throughput and sensitivity of comprehensive histone modification characterization is dramatically improved compared with more traditional platforms.
Project description:Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide.
Project description:Blood plasma is a valuable source of potential biomarkers. However, its complexity and the huge dynamic concentration range of its constituents complicate its analysis. To tackle this problem, an immunoprecipitation strategy was employed using antibodies directed against short terminal epitope tags (triple X proteomics antibodies), which allow the enrichment of groups of signature peptides derived from trypsin-digested plasma. Isolated signature peptides are subsequently detected using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Sensitivity of the immunoaffinity approach was, however, compromised by the presence of contaminant peaks derived from the peptides of nontargeted high abundant proteins. A closer analysis of the enrichment strategy revealed nonspecific peptide binding to the solid phase affinity matrix as the major source of the contaminating peptides. We therefore implemented a sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation separation step into the procedure. This yielded a 99% depletion of contaminating peptides from a sucrose fraction containing 70% of the peptide-antibody complexes and enabled the detection of the previously undetected low abundance protein filamin-A. Assessment of this novel approach using 15 different triple X proteomics antibodies demonstrated a more consistent detection of a greater number of targeted peptides and a significant reduction in the intensity of nonspecific peptides. Ultracentrifugation coupled with immunoaffinity MS approaches presents a powerful tool for multiplexed plasma protein analysis without the requirement for demanding liquid chromatography separation techniques.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Exiguobacterium antarcticum strain B7 is a Gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterial species isolated in Antarctica. Although this bacteria has been poorly studied, its genome has already been sequenced. Therefore, it is an appropriate model for the study of thermal adaptation. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptomes and proteomes of E. antarcticum B7 grown at 0°C and 37°C by SOLiD RNA-Seq, Ion Torrent RNA-Seq and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE-MS/MS). RESULTS: We found expression of 2,058 transcripts in all replicates from both platforms and differential expression of 564 genes (absolute log2FC?1, P-value<0.001) comparing the two temperatures by RNA-Seq. A total of 73 spots were differentially expressed between the two temperatures on 2D-DIGE, 25 of which were identified by MS/MS. Some proteins exhibited patterns of dispersion in the gel that are characteristic of post-translational modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the two sequencing platforms yielded similar results and that different omic approaches may be used to improve the understanding of gene expression. To adapt to low temperatures, E. antarcticum B7 expresses four of the six cold-shock proteins present in its genome. The cold-shock proteins were the most abundant in the bacterial proteome at 0°C. Some of the differentially expressed genes are required to preserve transcription and translation, while others encode proteins that contribute to the maintenance of the intracellular environment and appropriate protein folding. The results denote the complexity intrinsic to the adaptation of psychrotrophic organisms to cold environments and are based on two omic approaches. They also unveil the lifestyle of a bacterial species isolated in Antarctica.
Project description:Quantitative proteomics using high-resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry promises to transform our understanding of biological systems and disease. Recent development of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) using hybrid instruments substantially improved the specificity of targeted mass spectrometry. Combined with high-efficiency ion trapping, this approach also provided significant improvements in sensitivity. Here, we investigated the effects of ion isolation and accumulation on the sensitivity and quantitative accuracy of targeted proteomics using the recently developed hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. We leveraged ultrahigh efficiency nano-electrospray ionization under optimized conditions to achieve yoctomolar sensitivity with more than seven orders of linear quantitative accuracy. To enable sensitive and specific targeted mass spectrometry, we implemented an automated, two-dimensional (2D) ion exchange-reversed phase nanoscale chromatography system. We found that automated 2D chromatography improved the sensitivity and accuracy of both PRM and an intact precursor scanning mass spectrometry method, termed accumulated ion monitoring (AIM), by more than 100-fold. Combined with automated 2D nano-scale chromatography, AIM achieved subattomolar limits of detection of endogenous proteins in complex biological proteomes. This allowed quantitation of absolute abundance of the human transcription factor MEF2C at ?100 molecules/cell, and determination of its phosphorylation stoichiometry from as little as 1 ?g of extracts isolated from 10,000 human cells. The combination of automated multidimensional nano-scale chromatography and targeted mass spectrometry should enable ultrasensitive high-accuracy quantitative proteomics of complex biological systems and diseases.
Project description:Glycated proteins are emerging as good indicators for diabetes and age related diseases. However, the platform for analysis of glycated proteome has been relatively less well established. We here introduce an online 2D-LC-HCD-MS/MS platform for comprehensive glycated peptide quantification. This platform includes a boronate affinity column in the first dimension for enrichment, reversed phase nanoLC column in the second dimension for separation, a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer with HCD-MS/MS for peptide sequencing, and MaxQuant bioinformatics tool for identification and quantification of glycated peptides. This online 2D-LC-HCD-MS/MS platform has high enrichment efficiency with 85% of identified peptides in the enriched fraction as glycated, high sensitivity for detection of glycated peptides with LOD and LOQ at 1.2 and 2.4 pg, respectively, and high reproducibility with interday CVs < 20% for 80% of the glycated peptides. The number of glycated peptides quantified in in vitro glycated human plasma increased more than 3-fold using this platform in comparison to that obtained using 1D-LC-HCD-MS/MS platform without boronate affinity enrichment. Application of this online platform to human plasma identified 376 glycated peptides from 10 ?g of protein digests. This highly sensitive and reproducible online 2D platform is promising for glycated protein analysis of complex clinical samples.
Project description:Combinatorial triple-selective labeling facilitates the NMR assignment process for proteins that are subject to signal overlap and insufficient signal-to-noise in standard triple-resonance experiments. Aiming at maximum amino-acid type and sequence-specific information, the method represents a trade-off between the number of selectively labeled samples that have to be prepared and the number of spectra to be recorded per sample. In order to address the demand of long measurement times, we here propose pulse sequences in which individual phase-shifted transients are stored separately and recombined later to produce several 2D HN(CX) type spectra that are usually acquired sequentially. Sign encoding by the phases of (13)C 90° pulses allows to either select or discriminate against (13)C' or (13)C(?) spins coupled to (15)N. As a result, (1)H-(15)N correlation maps of the various isotopomeric species present in triple-selectively labeled proteins are deconvoluted which in turn reduces problems due to spectral overlap. The new methods are demonstrated with four different membrane proteins with rotational correlation times ranging from 18 to 52 ns.
Project description:Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is an important method for protein structure-function analysis. The bottom-up approach uses protein digestion to localize deuteration to higher resolution, and the essential measurement involves centroid mass determinations on a very large set of peptides. In the course of evaluating systems for various projects, we established two (HDX-MS) platforms that consisted of a FT-MS and a high-resolution QTOF mass spectrometer, each with matched front-end fluidic systems. Digests of proteins spanning a 20-110 kDa range were deuterated to equilibrium, and figures-of-merit for a typical bottom-up (HDX-MS) experiment were compared for each platform. The Orbitrap Velos identified 64% more peptides than the 5600 QTOF, with a 42% overlap between the two systems, independent of protein size. Precision in deuterium measurements using the Orbitrap marginally exceeded that of the QTOF, depending on the Orbitrap resolution setting. However, the unique nature of FT-MS data generates situations where deuteration measurements can be inaccurate, because of destructive interference arising from mismatches in elemental mass defects. This is shown through the analysis of the peptides common to both platforms, where deuteration values can be as low as 35% of the expected values, depending on FT-MS resolution, peptide length and charge state. These findings are supported by simulations of Orbitrap transients, and highlight that caution should be exercised in deriving centroid mass values from FT transients that do not support baseline separation of the full isotopic composition.