Project description:MicroRNAs are important negative regulators of protein coding gene expression, and have been studied intensively over the last few years. To this purpose, different measurement platforms to determine their RNA abundance levels in biological samples have been developed. In this study, we have systematically compared 12 commercially available microRNA expression platforms by measuring an identical set of 20 standardized positive and negative control samples, including human universal reference RNA, human brain RNA and titrations thereof, human serum samples, and synthetic spikes from homologous microRNA family members. We developed novel quality metrics in order to objectively assess platform performance of very different technologies such as small RNA sequencing, RT-qPCR and (microarray) hybridization. We assessed reproducibility, sensitivity, quantitative performance, and specificity. The results indicate that each method has its strengths and weaknesses, which helps guiding informed selection of a quantitative microRNA gene expression platform in function of particular study goals.
Project description:Recurrent non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC) is a rare disease. We initially characterized 27 recurrent NMTC: 13 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 10 oncocytic follicular carcinomas (FTC-OV), and 4 non-oncocytic follicular carcinomas (FTC). A validation cohort composed of benign and malignant (both recurrent and non-recurrent) thyroid tumours was subsequently analysed (n = 20). Methods Data from genome-wide SNP arrays and flow cytometry were combined to determine the chromosomal dosage (allelic state) in these tumours, including mutation analysis of components of PIK3CA/AKT and MAPK pathways. Results All FTC-OVs showed a very distinct pattern of genomic alterations. Ten out of 10 FTC-OV cases showed near-haploidisation with or without subsequent genome endoreduplication. Near-haploidisation was seen in 5/10 as extensive chromosome-wide monosomy (allelic state [A]) with near-haploid DNA indices and retention of especially chromosome 7 (seen as a heterozygous allelic state [AB]). In the remaining 5/10 chromosomal allelic states AA with near diploid DNA indices were seen with allelic state AABB of chromosome 7, suggesting endoreduplication after preceding haploidisation. The latter was supported by the presence of both near-haploid and endoreduplicated tumour fractions in some of the cases. Results were confirmed using FISH analysis. Relatively to FTC-OV limited numbers of genomic alterations were identified in other types of recurrent NMTC studied, except for chromosome 22q which showed alterations in 6 of 13 PTCs. Only two HRAS, but no mutations of EGFR or BRAF were found in FTC-OV. The validation cohort showed two additional tumours with the distinct pattern of genomic alterations (both with oncocytic features and recurrent). Conclusions We demonstrate that recurrent FTC-OV is frequently characterised by genome-wide DNA haploidisation, heterozygous retention of chromosome 7, and endoreduplication of a near-haploid genome. Whether normal gene dosage on especially chromosome 7 (containing EGFR, BRAF, cMET) is crucial for FTC-OV tumour survival is an important topic for future research. 28 thyroid tumors from 27 patients were profiled by SNP array. Comparisons between different types were made.
Project description:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been recognized as important contributors to cancer development and progression. However, opposing evidence has been published whether CAFs, in addition to epigenetic, also undergo somatic genetic alterations and whether these changes contribute to carcinogenesis and tumour progression. We combined multiparameter DNA flow cytometry, flow-sorting and 6K SNP-arrays to study DNA aneuploidy, % S-phase, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy number alterations (CNAs) to study somatic genetic alterations in cervical cancer-associated stromal cell fractions (n = 58) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Tissue sections were examined for the presence of CAFs. Microsatellite analysis was used to study LOH. By flow cytometry we found no proof for DNA aneuploidy in the vimentin-positive stromal cell fractions of any samples (CV G0G1 population 3.7% +/- 1.2; S-phase 1.4% +/- 1.8). The genotype concordance between the stromal cells and the paired normal endometrium samples was > 99.9%. No evidence for CNAs or LOH was found in the stromal cell fractions. In contrast, high frequencies of DNA content abnormalities (43/57), a significant higher S-phase (14.6% +/- 8.5)(p = 0.0001) and substantial numbers of CNAs and LOH were identified in the keratin-positive epithelial cell fractions (CV G0G1 population 4.1% +/- 1.0). Smooth muscle actin and vimentin immunohistochemistry verified the presence of CAFs in all cases tested. LOH hot-spots on chromosomes 3p, 4p and 6p were confirmed by microsatellite analysis but the stromal cell fractions showed retention of heterozygosity only. From our study we conclude that stromal cell fractions from cervical carcinomas are DNA diploid, have a genotype undistinguishable from patient-matched normal tissue and are genetically stable. Stromal genetic changes do not seem to play a role during cervical carcinogenesis and progression. In addition, the stromal cell fraction of cervical carcinomas can be used as reference allowing large retrospective studies of archival FFPE tissues for which no normal reference tissue is available. Paired experiment, Endometrial (non-tumor) cells vs stromal cells from cervical tumors. Biological replicates: 58 patients. From 5 tumors also the tumor fraction was profiled.
Project description:We report the lncRNAs transcribed in the human primary monocyte cells. We performed deep RNA sequencing from four healthy individuals. In addition, the raw RNA-Seq data from 11 human monocyte samples were selected from public databases and generated a total ~1.7 billion reads. We identified ~ 8,000 lncRNAs from all the datasets of which more than 1,000 of them have not been previously reported in monocytes. We also validated a few of these novel lncRNAs in monocytes and other hematopoetic cell types. The other 11 datasets were taken from the following: ENCSR000CUC 6 samples E-MTAB-2399 4 samples GSM1526678 mRNA profiling of monocytes cells from 4 healthy individuals
Project description:In order to determine whether dis-regulation of a genetic pathway could explain the increased apoptosis of parp-2-/- double positive thymocytes, the gene expression profiles in double positive thymocytes derived from wild-type and parp-2-/- mice were analysed using Affymetrix oligonucleotide chips (mouse genome 430 2.0).
Project description:This ArrayExpress record contains meta-data and results of quantitative analysis of cell lines from the NCI-60 panel using pressure cycling technology (PCT) and SWATH-mass spectrometry. Each cell line was analyzed in duplicate. Raw data files are available at the EMBL-EBI protemics data archive (PRIDE) at accession PXD003539 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003539). Since the record here does not include the raw data files and hence there is no need to explicitly link individual replicate to a raw file, each sample is only listed once in the ArrayExpress samples table for clarity.
Project description:Genomic DNA prepared from B. subtilis 168 cells grown to stationary phase was hybridized to tiling arrays. The data are used in transcriptome studies to compute expression intensities from raw intensity data using a model of shift and drift and correcting for probe affinity variations as described in (Nicolas et al., 2009, Bioinformatics 25, 2341-2347). B. subtilis 168 was grown in LB medium to stationary phase. Genomic DNA was prepared from four independent cultures. After sonication, DNA was labeled with Cy3 and hybridized to tiling arrays.
Project description:The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized tripartite synapse composed of the motor axon terminal, covered by perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs), and the muscle fibre, separated by a basal lamina. It is exposed to different kind of injures such as mechanical traumas, pathogens including neurotoxins, and neuromuscular diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and immune-mediated disorders, and has retained throughout vertebrate evolution an intrinsic ability for repair and regeneration, at variance from central synapses1. Following peripheral nerve injury, an intense but poorly defined crosstalk takes place at the NMJ among its components, functional to nerve terminal regeneration. To identify crucial factors released by PSCs and the muscle to induce nerve regrowth, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the NMJ at different time points after injection of -latrotoxin, a presynaptic neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the black widow spider. This toxin is a simple and controlled method to induce an acute, localized and reversible nerve terminal degeneration not blurred by inflammation, and can help to identify molecules involved in the intra- and inter-cellular signalling governing NMJ regeneration.
Project description:This analysis is part of the study Whole-transcriptome analysis of Staphylococcus aureus under laboratory and infection-mimicking conditions (Mäder, Nicolas et al., to be submitted) where the S. aureus HG001 transcriptome was analyzed under more than 40 different bilogical conditions. Genomic DNA was prepared from four independent cultures of S. aureus HG001 cells; after sonication, DNA was labeled with Cy3 and hybridized to tiling arrays. The data are used in transcriptome studies to compute expression intensities from raw intensity data using a model of shift and drift. genomic DNA from wild type