Project description:Human aqueous humor (hAH) provides nutrition and immunity within the anterior chamber of the eye. Characterization of the protein composition of hAH will identify molecules involved in maintaining a homeostatic environment for anterior segment tissues. The present study was conducted to analyze the proteome of hAH.hAH samples obtained during elective cataract surgery were divided into three matched groups and immunodepleted of albumin, IgG, IgA, haploglobin, antitrypsin, and transferrin. Reduced and denatured proteins (20 ?g) from each group were separated by gel electrophoresis. Thirty-three gel slices were excised from each of three gel lanes (n = 99), digested with trypsin, and subjected to nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). The protein component of hAH was also analyzed by antibody-based protein arrays, and selected proteins were quantified.A total of 676 proteins were identified in hAH. Of the 355 proteins identified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 206 were found in all three groups. Most of the proteins identified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS had catalytic, enzymatic, and structural properties. Using antibody-based protein arrays, 328 cytokines, chemokines, and receptors were identified. Most of the quantified proteins had concentrations that ranged between 0.1 and 2.5 ng/mL. Ten proteins were identified by both nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS and antibody protein arrays.Proteomic analysis of hAH identified 676 nonredundant proteins. More than 80% of these proteins are novel identifications. The elucidation of the aqueous proteome will establish a foundation for protein function analysis and identification of differentially expressed markers associated with diseases of the anterior segment.
Project description:We performed high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis of aqueous humor samples from patients from patients with pseudoefoliation syndrome (PEX).
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> Myopia is the most common refractive vision disorder. In recent years, several studies have suggested that the alteration of the exosomal protein levels in the aqueous humor (AH) is associated with the development of several eye diseases. Therefore, we aimed to explore the exosomal protein profile of the AH from myopia patients. <b>Methods:</b> Exosomes were isolated from the AH. The quality, concentration, and size distribution of exosomes for each patient were measured using nanoparticle tracking analysis system. Then, the exosomal proteins were purified and digested by trypsin for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. <b>Results:</b> There was no significant difference observed between the myopia and control when comparing the concentration and size distribution of exosomes in the AH for each sample. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, myopia patients had higher and more complex exosomal peptide content. We found two proteins that were common in AH exosomes and eight proteins that were highly expressed in the myopia group. <b>Conclusions:</b> Our results provide pioneering findings for the exploration of the exosomal protein profile in myopia development. Further studies may provide significant information for the diagnosis, clinical treatment, and prognosis of myopia.
Project description:We report an analysis of the aqueous humor (AH) metabolome of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in comparison to normal controls. The AH samples were obtained from human donors [control (n = 35), POAG (n = 23)]. The AH samples were subjected to one-dimensional <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses on a Bruker Avance 600 MHz instrument with a 1.7 mM NMR probe. The same samples were then subjected to isotopic ratio outlier analysis (IROA) using a Q Exactive orbitrap mass spectrometer after chromatography on an Accela 600 HPLC. Clusterfinder Build 3.1.10 was used for identification and quantification based on long-term metabolite matrix standards. In total, 278 metabolites were identified in control samples and 273 in POAG AH. The metabolites identified were fed into previously reported proteome and genome information and the OmicsNet interaction network generator to construct a protein-metabolite interactions network with an embedded protein-protein network. Significant differences in metabolite composition in POAG compared to controls were identified indicating potential protein/gene pathways associated with these metabolites. These results will expand our previous understanding of the impeded AH metabolite composition, provide new insight into the regulation of AH outflow, and likely aid in future AH and trabecular meshwork multi-omics network analyses.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study was to discover the aqueous humor proteomic changes associated with visual field indices in glaucoma patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Aqueous humor samples were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The visual fields were analyzed with the Humphrey Visual Field analyzer. Statistical analyses were performed to discover the relationship between the aqueous humor proteins and visual field parameters including Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD), Visual Field Index (VFI), Mean Deviation (MD) and Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT).<h4>Results</h4>In total, 222 proteins were identified in 49 aqueous humor samples. A total of 11, 9, 7, and 6 proteins were significantly correlated with PSD, VFI, MD, and GHT respectively. These proteins include apolipoprotein D, members of complement pathway (C1S, C4A, C4B, C8B, and CD14), and immunoglobulin family (IKHV3-9, IGKV2-28).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Several proteins involved in immune responses (immunoglobulins and complement factors) and neurodegeneration (apolipoprotein D) were identified to be associated with abnormal visual field parameters. These findings provide targets for future studies investigating precise molecular mechanisms and new therapies for glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Evidence suggests that proteins related to lipid metabolism, such as apolipoproteins, play an important role in the maintenance of normal vision. While several members of the apolipoprotein family are abundant in human aqueous humor (AH), their study remains difficult due to the AH's small volume, low protein concentration, and the invasive nature of sample collection. In this study, we report the use of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to discover associations between AH apolipoproteins and race, gender, and ocular structure in patients with and without primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).<h4>Methods</h4>AH samples were collected from 231 patients undergoing phacoemulsification or glaucoma incisional surgery at the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University and subsequently analyzed via LC-MS/MS. The number of peptide spectrum matches (PSMs) for each protein was used as a semi-quantitative measure of relative protein levels. Parameters related to ocular structure were determined using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT). These data sets were probed for relationships between apolipoprotein levels and POAG, demographics (gender and race), and ocular structure.<h4>Results</h4>A total of ten apolipoproteins were detected in the 231 collected AH samples, with six detected in 100% of the samples, one detected in almost 57% of the samples and three detected in less than 10% of the samples. The levels of APOA1, APOC3, and APOD were higher among POAG subjects. Stratification by gender and race revealed demographic-specific variations. The levels of five apolipoproteins (APOA1, APOA2, APOA4, APOC3, and APOD) were higher in female POAG patients, whereas no apolipoprotein levels were altered in male POAG patients. The levels of APOA1, APOA2, APOA4, and APOD were increased in glaucomatous African American patients, whereas APOE and APOH levels were decreased in glaucomatous Caucasian patients. We also found distinct associations between apolipoprotein levels and OCT and HRT parameters in patients with and without POAG.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The intra-population variation in apolipoprotein levels highlights the heterogeneity of glaucoma as a disease, suggesting the importance of personalized treatments. Gender and race-specific alterations may be associated with higher risks of POAG in females and members of the African American population.
Project description:AIM:To preliminarily test proteomics in aqueous humor in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by using the proteomic technology. METHODS:Aqueous humor samples were collected from patients with or without dry AMD, who underwent cataract surgery. The aqueous samples were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The differential expressed proteins were analyzed with gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. The data were partly validated by ELISA and Western blot. False discovery rate (FDR) was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:A total of 244 proteins were detected, in which 38 proteins were up-regulated and 51 were down-regulated significantly in patients with dry AMD compared with that in control groups (FDR value <1.0%). Several proteins, e.g., protein S100-A8 (S10A8), dystroglycan (DAG1), Ig alpha-1 chain C region (IGHA1), carbonic anhydrase 3 (CAH3) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (A1AG1) were increased more than 5 times of that in control group. The bioinformatics analysis showed that dry AMD is closely associated with inflammation or immune reaction, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. CONCLUSION:iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of aqueous humor demonstrate the differential expressions of proteins between dry AMD and control groups, providing the clues to understand the mechanisms and possible treatments of dry AMD.
Project description:PURPOSE: To use an integrated proteohistologic approach to gain insight into the anterior segment alterations in the buphthalmic rabbit. METHODS: Eyes from 2- and 5-year-old buphthalmic and normal rabbits (n=20) were studied histologically. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of aqueous humor (AH) was used to determine differential protein expression between animal groups. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: The buphthalmic rabbits manifested a mild clinical phenotype with typical angle anomalies that appeared progressive by histology. Significantly thickened Descemet's membrane (DM) and anterior lens capsule in all buphthalmic rabbits showed increased fibronectin and collagen-IV immunolabeling. LC-MS/MS applying stringent filtering criteria revealed significant differential expression of several AH proteins in these rabbits. The protein of interest in the 2-year-old group was histidine-rich glycoprotein, and those in the 5-year-old group included alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, clusterin, apolipoprotein E, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, transthyretin, cochlin, gelsolin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, and beta-2 microglobulin. The proteomic data for selected proteins was validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A wide range of functional groups were affected by the altered AH proteins. These included extracellular matrix modulation, regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protein transport. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple anterior segment alterations were histologically identified in the buphthalmic rabbits that showed progressive changes with age. The differentially expressed AH proteins in these rabbits suggest a multifunctional role for AH in modulating pathologic changes in DM, anterior lens capsule, and the angular meshwork in these animals.
Project description:Purpose:Glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation can lead to corneal decompensation. We evaluated changes over time in oxygen tension and in the metabolic environment of the aqueous humor after GDD implantation in the rabbit eye. Methods:Ahmed Glaucoma Valves were implanted in the left eyes of eight male New Zealand white rabbits. Right eyes were used as a control. Oxygen tension was measured immediately before surgery and at 1 and 2 months postoperation. Aqueous humor was collected from the surgical and control eyes at 1, 2, and 5 months postoperation. Aqueous humor samples collected at 1 and 5 months postoperation were selected for broad-spectrum metabolomics analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC TOF-MS). Multivariate analysis methods were used to identify metabolite profiles that separated the surgical and control eye at 1 and 5 months. Results:There was a significant decrease in oxygen tension in aqueous humor of the surgical eyes (9 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -14.7 to -3.5). Differences in the metabolic profiles between the surgical and control eye at 1 and 5 months were observed, as were differences for the surgical eye at 1 and 5 months. In addition, a metabolite profile was identified that differentiated the surgical eyes at 1 and 5 months. Conclusion:Changes in the oxygen tension and metabolic intermediates occur within the aqueous humor as early as 1 month after GDD implantation. Translational Relevance:Corneal decompensation following GDD implantation could be secondary to disruption of the normal aqueous circulation, resulting in hypoxia and an altered metabolic profile. Alterations to the GDD design might minimize aqueous disruption and prevent corneal decompensation.
Project description:Analysis of the proteins of the aqueous humor can help to elucidate the complex pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma. Thanks to advances in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) it is now possible to identify hundreds of proteins in individual aqueous humor samples without the need to pool samples. We performed a systematic literature search to find publications that performed LC-MS/MS on aqueous humor samples of glaucoma patients and of non-glaucomatous controls. Of the seven publications that we found, we obtained the raw data of three publications. These three studies used glaucoma patients that were clinically similar (i.e. undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery) which prompted us to reanalyse and combine their data. Raw data of each study were analysed separately with the latest version of MaxQuant (version v18.104.22.168). Outcome files were exported to Microsoft Excel. Samples belonging to the same patient were averaged to obtain peptide expression values per individual. We compared the overlap of identified proteins using the VLOOKUP function of Excel and a publicly available Venn diagram software. For the peptide sequences that can belong to multiple proteins (usually of the same protein family), we initially included all possibly identified proteins. This ensured that we would not miss a potential overlap between the studies due to differences in identified peptide counts. Next, of those peptides of which we compared multiple proteins, only one unique protein was included in our analysis i.e. either the protein overlapping between studies or in case of no overlap, the protein that had the highest identified peptide count. This yielded 639 unique proteins detected in aqueous humor of either glaucoma patients or non-glaucomatous controls. In our manuscript entitled "The aqueous humor proteome of primary open angle glaucoma: An extensive review" , we further analysed this dataset. The dataset was exported to Perseus (version 22.214.171.124). We removed contaminants and filtered for proteins detected with high confidence, i.e. in more than 70% of the samples of at least one study. This yielded 248 proteins of which we compared the expression in glaucoma patients against control patients. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and pathway analysis was used to interpret the results. The unfiltered dataset reported in this data article and the approach reported here to reanalyse and combine raw data of different studies can be applied by other glaucoma researchers to gain more insight in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.