Project description:Untargeted omics analyses aim to comprehensively characterize biomolecules within a biological system. Changes in the presence or quantity of these biomolecules can indicate important biological perturbations, such as those caused by disease. With current technological advancements, the entire genome can now be sequenced; however, in the burgeoning fields of lipidomics, only a subset of lipids can be identified. The recent emergence of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS), in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, has resulted in an increased coverage of the lipidome. Nevertheless, identifications from MS/MS are generally limited by the number of precursors that can be selected for fragmentation during chromatographic elution. Therefore, we developed the software IE-Omics to automate iterative exclusion (IE), where selected precursors using data-dependent topN analyses are excluded in sequential injections. In each sequential injection, unique precursors are fragmented until HR-MS/MS spectra of all ions above a user-defined intensity threshold are acquired. IE-Omics was applied to lipidomic analyses in Red Cross plasma and substantia nigra tissue. Coverage of the lipidome was drastically improved using IE. When applying IE-Omics to Red Cross plasma and substantia nigra lipid extracts in positive ion mode, 69% and 40% more molecular identifications were obtained, respectively. In addition, applying IE-Omics to a lipidomics workflow increased the coverage of trace species, including odd-chained and short-chained diacylglycerides and oxidized lipid species. By increasing the coverage of the lipidome, applying IE to a lipidomics workflow increases the probability of finding biomarkers and provides additional information for determining etiology of disease. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. The seed meal has potential value as a biopesticide due to glucosinolate degradation products and phytoecdysteroids, a group of polyhydroxylated triterpenoids with potent activities as arthropod molting hormones. Liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry operated in the precursor ion mode revealed the presence of four ecdysteroid glycosides in meadowfoam seed meal. The carbohydrate sequence and the identity of the ecdysteroid aglycones, ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone, were determined by product ion scanning. Ecdysteroids were detected in the negative ion mode as [M + formate] (-) ions, which yielded [M - H] (-) and alpha-cleavage fragments with retention of hydroxyl groups in MS/MS experiments (not seen in the positive ion mode), allowing the determination of the number of hydroxyl groups in the side chain and in the steroid ring system. MS/MS of glycoside ions ([MH] (+) or [M + formate] (-)) provided carbohydrate sequence information.
Project description:A method for quantification of fludarabine (FDB) and clofarabine (CFB) in human plasma was developed with an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. FDB and CFB were extracted from EDTA plasma samples by protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. Briefly, 50 ?L plasma sample was mixed with 25 ?L internal standard (50 ng/mL aqueous 2-Cl-adensosine) and 25 ?L 20% trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged at 25,000 × g (20,000 rpm) for 3 min, and then transfered to an autosampler vial. The extracted sample was injected onto an Eclipse extend C18 column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 5 ?m) and eluted with 1mM NH4OH (pH 9.6) - acetonitrile in a gradient mode. Electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI(+)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used, and ion pairs 286/134 for FDB, 304/170 for CFB and 302/134 for the internal standard were selected for quantification. The retention times were typically 3.72 min for FDB, 4.34 min for the internal standard, 4.79 min for CFB. Total run time was 10 min per sample. Calibration range was 0.5-80 ng/mL for CFB and 2-800 ng/mL for FDB. The method was applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients.
Project description:Sialic acid storage disease (SASD) is an inborn error resulting from defects in the lysosomal membrane protein sialin. The SASD phenotypical spectrum ranges from a severe presentation, infantile sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) which may present as hydrops fetalis, to a relatively mild form, Salla disease. Screening for SASD is performed by determination of free sialic acid (FSA) in urine or amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS). Subsequent diagnosis of SASD is performed by quantification of FSA in cultured fibroblasts and by mutation analysis of the sialin gene, SLC17A5. We describe simple quantitative procedures to determine FSA as well as conjugated sialic acid in AFS, and FSA in cultured fibroblasts, using isotope dilution ((13)C(3)-sialic acid) and multiple reaction monitoring LC-ESI-MS/MS. The whole procedure can be performed in 2-4 h. Reference values in AFS were 0-8.2 ?mol/L for 15-25 weeks of gestation and 3.2-12.0 ?mol/L for 26-38 weeks of gestation. In AFS samples from five fetuses affected with ISSD FSA was 23.9-58.9 ?mol/L demonstrating that this method is able to discriminate ISSD pregnancies from normal ones. The method was also validated for determination of FSA in fibroblast homogenates. FSA in SASD fibroblasts (ISSD; 20-154 nmol/mg protein, intermediate SASD; 12.9-15.1 nmol/mg, Salla disease; 5.9-7.4 nmol/mg) was clearly elevated compared to normal controls (0.3-2.2 nmol/mg). In conclusion, we report simple quantitative procedures to determine FSA in AFS and cultured fibroblasts improving both prenatal diagnostic efficacy for ISSD as well as confirmatory testing in cultured fibroblasts following initial screening in urine or AFS.
Project description:Quantitative analysis of fatty acids (FAs) is an important area of analytical biochemistry. Ultra high sensitivity FA analysis usually is done with gas chromatography of pentafluorobenzyl esters coupled to an electron-capture detector. With the popularity of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometers coupled to liquid chromatography, it would be convenient to develop a method for ultra high sensitivity FA detection using this equipment. Although FAs can be analyzed by ESI in negative ion mode, this method is not very sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate a new method of FA analysis based on conversion of the carboxylic acid to an amide bearing a permanent positive charge, N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)pyridinium (AMPP) combined with analysis on a reverse-phase liquid chromatography column coupled to an ESI mass spectrometer operating in positive ion mode. This leads to an ?60,000-fold increase in sensitivity compared with the same method carried out with underivatized FAs. The new method is about 10-fold more sensitive than the existing method of gas chromatography/electron-capture mass spectrometry of FA pentafluorobenzyl esters. Furthermore, significant fragmentation of the precursor ions in the nontag portion improves analytical specificity. We show that a large number of FA molecular species can be analyzed with this method in complex biological samples such as mouse serum.
Project description:Lipids play multiple roles essential for proper mitochondrial function, from their involvement in membrane structure and fluidity, cellular energy storage, and signaling. Lipids are also major targets for reactive species, and their peroxidation byproducts themselves mediate further damage. Thousands of lipid species, from multiple classes and categories, are involved in these processes, suggesting lipid quantitative and structural analysis can help provide a better understanding of mitochondrial physiological status. Due to the diversity of lipids that contribute to and reflect mitochondrial function, analytical methods should ideally cover a wide range of lipid classes, and yield both quantitative and structural information. We developed a high resolution LC-MS method that is able to monitor the major lipid classes found in biospecimens (ie. biofluids, cells and tissues) with relative quantitation in an efficient, sensitive, and robust manner while also characterizing individual lipid side-chains, by all ion HCD fragmentation and chromatographic alignment. This method was used to profile the liver mitochondrial lipids from 192 rats undergoing a dietary macronutrient study in which changes in mitochondria function are related to changes in the major fat and glycemic index component of each diet. A total of 381 unique lipids, spanning 5 of the major LIPID MAPS defined categories, including fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids, sphingolipids and prenols, were identified in mitochondria using the non-targeted LC-MS analysis in both positive and negative mode. The intention of this report is to show the breadth of this non-targeted LC-MS profiling method with regards to its ability to profile, identify and characterize the mitochondrial lipidome and the details of this will be discussed.
Project description:Various glycomic analysis methods have been developed due to the essential roles of glycans in biological processes as well as the potential application of glycomics in biomarker discovery in many diseases. Permethylation is currently considered to be one of the most common derivatization methods in MS-based glycomic analysis. Permethylation not only improves ionization efficiency and stability of sialylated glycans in positive mode but also allows for enhanced separation performance on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Recently, RPLC-MS analysis of permethylated glycans exhibited excellent performance in sensitivity and reproducibility and became a widely-applied comprehensive strategy in glycomics. However, separating permethylated glycans by RPLC always suffers from peak broadening for high-molecular-weight branched glycans, which probably due to the low exchange rate between the stationary phase and mobile phase limited by intermolecular interactions of the methyl groups associated with the branching of the glycan structures. In this study, we employed high separation temperature conditions for RPLC of permethylated glycans, thus achieving enhanced peak capacity, improving peak shape, and enhancing separation efficiency. Additionally, partial isomeric separation were observed in RPLC of permethylated glycans at high-temperature. Mathematical processing of the correlation between retention time and molecular weight also revealed the advantage of high-temperature LC method for both manual and automatic glycan identification.
Project description:Epothilones are relatively new tubulin-poison anticancer drugs. Iso-fludelone (KOS-1803) is a synthetic third generation epothilone drug discovered at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and currently in phase I clinical trials. We report an LC-MS/MS assay for the sensitive, accurate and precise quantitation of iso-fludelone in 0.2mL of human plasma. Validation was performed according to FDA guidance. The assay comprised of KOS-1724 as the internal standard and an MTBE liquid-liquid extraction with a water wash step. Separation was achieved with an YMC-Pack ODS-AQ column and an isocratic mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and water (70:30, v/v) at 0.3mL/min for 4min. Chromatographic separation was followed by electrospray, positive-mode ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 300ng/mL and was accurate (-9.41 to -7.07%) and precise (1.03-13.7%) which fulfilled FDA criteria for validation. Recovery from plasma was 73.9-79.7% and ion suppression was negligible (-22.8 to -31.3%). Plasma freeze-thaw stability (99.97-105.7%), stability for 11 months at -80°C (94.93-107.9%), and stability for 6h at room temperature (94.75-105.5%) were all acceptable. This assay is currently being applied to quantitate iso-fludelone in clinical samples.
Project description:Lipids are a major component of heart tissue and perform several important functions such as energy storage, signaling, and as building blocks of biological membranes. The heart lipidome is quite diverse consisting of glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), cardiolipins (CLs), and glycerolipids, mainly triacylglycerols (TAGs). In this study, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enabled by matrix implantation of ionized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was used to map several classes of lipids in heart tissue. The use of AgNP matrix implantation was motivated by our previous work showing that implantation doses of only 10(14)/cm(2) of 2 nm gold nanoparticulates into the first 10 nm of the near surface of the tissue enabled detection of most brain lipids (including neutral lipid species such as cerebrosides) more efficiently than traditional organic MALDI matrices. Herein, a similar implantation of 500 eV AgNP(-) across the entire heart tissue section results in a quick, reproducible, solvent-free, uniform matrix concentration of 6 nm AgNP residing near the tissue surface. MALDI-MSI analysis of either positive or negative ions produce high-quality images of several heart lipid species. In negative ion mode, 24 lipid species [16 PEs, 4 PIs, 1 PG, 1 CL, 2 sphingomyelins (SMs)] were imaged. Positive ion images were also obtained from 29 lipid species (10 PCs, 5 PEs, 5 SMs, 9 TAGs) with the TAG species being heavily concentrated in vascular regions of the heart.
Project description:Oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) have been recently recognized as important mediators of various and often controversial cellular functions and stress responses. Due to the low concentrations in vivo, oxPL detection is mostly performed by targeted mass spectrometry. Although significantly improving the sensitivity, this approach does not provide a comprehensive view on oxPLs required for understanding oxPL functional activities. While capable of providing information on the diversity of oxPLs, the main challenge of untargeted lipidomics is the absence of bioinformatics tools to support high-throughput identification of previously unconsidered, oxidized lipids. Here, we present LPPtiger, an open-source software tool for oxPL identification from data-dependent LC-MS datasets. LPPtiger combines three unique algorithms to predict oxidized lipidome, generate oxPL spectra libraries, and identify oxPLs from tandem MS data using parallel processing and a multi-scoring identification workflow.