Project description:Viral infections induce substantial metabolic changes in infected cells to optimize viral production while cells develop countermeasures to restrict that infection. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an infectious pathogen that causes severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised adults for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. In this study, variations in metabolite levels at different time points post-HRSV infection of epithelial cells were studied by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of methanol cell extracts. Numerous metabolites were significantly upregulated after 18 hours post-infection, including nucleotides, amino acids, amino and nucleotide sugars, and metabolites of the central carbon pathway. In contrast, most lipid classes were downregulated. Additionally, increased levels of oxidized glutathione and polyamines were associated with oxidative stress in infected cells. These results show how HRSV infection influences cell metabolism to produce the energy and building blocks necessary for virus reproduction, suggesting potential therapeutic interventions against this virus.
Project description:Higher-order chromatin structure is often perturbed in cancer and other pathological states. Although several genetic and epigenetic differences have been charted between normal and breast cancer tissues, changes in higher-order chromatin organization during tumorigenesis have not been fully explored. To probe the differences in higher-order chromatin structure between mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells, we performed Hi-C analysis on MCF-10A mammary epithelial and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.Our studies reveal that the small, gene-rich chromosomes chr16 through chr22 in the MCF-7 breast cancer genome display decreased interaction frequency with each other compared to the inter-chromosomal interaction frequency in the MCF-10A epithelial cells. Interestingly, this finding is associated with a higher occurrence of open compartments on chr16-22 in MCF-7 cells. Pathway analysis of the MCF-7 up-regulated genes located in altered compartment regions on chr16-22 reveals pathways related to repression of WNT signaling. There are also differences in intra-chromosomal interactions between the cell lines; telomeric and sub-telomeric regions in the MCF-10A cells display more frequent interactions than are observed in the MCF-7 cells.We show evidence of an intricate relationship between chromosomal organization and gene expression between epithelial and breast cancer cells. Importantly, this work provides a genome-wide view of higher-order chromatin dynamics and a resource for studying higher-order chromatin interactions in two cell lines commonly used to study the progression of breast cancer.
Project description:The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. RAGE is constitutively expressed in the distal lung where it co-localizes with the alveolar epithelium; RAGE expression is otherwise minimal or absent, except with disease. This suggests RAGE plays a role in lung physiology and pathology. We used proteomics to identify and characterize the effects of RAGE on rat alveolar epithelial (R3/1) cells. LC-MS/MS identified 177 differentially expressed proteins and the PANTHER Classification System further segregated proteins. Proteins involved in gene transcription (RNA and mRNA splicing, mRNA processing) and transport (protein, intracellular protein) were overrepresented; genes involved in a response to stimulus were underrepresented. Immune system processes and response to stimuli were downregulated with RAGE knockdown. Western blot confirmed RAGE-dependent changes in protein expression for NF?B and NLRP3 that was functionally supported by a reduction in IL-1? and phosphorylated p65. We also assessed RAGE's effect on redox regulation and report that RAGE knockdown attenuated oxidant production, decreased protein oxidation, and increased reduced thiol pools. Collectively the data suggest that RAGE is a critical regulator of epithelial cell response and has implications for our understanding of lung disease, specifically acute lung injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:In the present study, we undertook the first proteomic evaluation of RAGE-dependent processes in alveolar epithelial cells. The alveolar epithelium is a primary target during acute lung injury, and our data support a role for RAGE in gene transcription, protein transport, and response to stimuli. More over our data suggest that RAGE is a critical driver of redox regulation in the alveolar epithelium. The conclusions of the present work assist to unravel the molecular events that underlie the function of RAGE in alveolar epithelial cells and have implications for our understanding of RAGE signaling during lung injury. Our study was the first proteomic comparison showing the effects of RAGE activation from alveolar epithelial cells that constitutively express RAGE and these results can affect a wide field of lung biology, pulmonary therapeutics, and proteomics.
Project description:Nanoparticles (Nps) can induce toxicity in the lung by accidental or intentional exposure. The main objective of the study reported here was to characterize the effect that four metal oxide Nps (CeO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and ZnO) had at the cellular level on a human lung epithelial cell line. This goal was achieved by studying the capacity of the Nps to activate the main mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear factor NF?B. Only ZnO Nps were able to activate all of the MAPKs and the release of Zn2+ ions was the main cause of activation. ZnO and Al2O3 Nps activated the NF?B pathway and induced the release of inflammatory cytokines. CeO2 and TiO2 Nps were found to have safer profiles. The graphical abstract was obtained using Servier Medical Art.
Project description:We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells.Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression.Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells.Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland.
Project description:P. aeruginosa forms biofilms in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, there have been no effective model systems for studying biofilm formation in the CF lung. We have developed a tissue culture system for growth of P. aeruginosa biofilms on CF-derived human airway cells that promotes the formation of highly antibiotic-resistant microcolonies, which produce an extracellular polysaccharide matrix and require the known abiotic biofilm formation genes flgK and pilB. Treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms with tobramycin reduced the virulence of the biofilms both by reducing bacterial numbers and by altering virulence gene expression. We performed microarray analysis of these biofilms on epithelial cells after treatment with tobramycin, and we compared these results with gene expression of (i) tobramycin-treated planktonic P. aeruginosa and (ii) tobramycin-treated P. aeruginosa biofilms on an abiotic surface. Despite the conservation in functions required to form a biofilm, our results show that the responses to tobramycin treatment of biofilms grown on biotic versus abiotic surfaces are different, as exemplified by downregulation of genes involved in Pseudomonas quinolone signal biosynthesis specifically in epithelial cell-grown biofilms versus plastic-grown biofilms. We also identified the gene PA0913, which is upregulated by tobramycin specifically in biofilms grown on CF airway cells and codes for a probable magnesium transporter, MgtE. Mutation of the PA0913 gene increased the bacterial virulence of biofilms on the epithelial cells, consistent with a role for the gene in the suppression of bacterial virulence. Taken together, our data show that analysis of biofilms on airway cells provides new insights into the interaction of these microbial communities with the host.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in bronchial remodeling and loss of lung function in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Previous studies showed the involvement of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the pathology of chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. However, the role of HMGB1 in EMT of human airway epithelial cells is still unclear. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to show that HMGB1 treatment regulated EMT-related gene expression in human primary-airway epithelial cells. The top five upregulated genes were SNAI2, FGFBP1, VIM, SPARC (osteonectin), and SERPINE1, while the downregulated genes included OCLN, TJP1 (ZO-1), FZD7, CDH1 (E-cadherin), and LAMA5. We found that HMGB1 induced downregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1, and upregulation of vimentin mRNA transcription and protein translation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we observed that HMGB1 induced AKT phosphorylation, resulting in GSK3? inactivation, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin to induce EMT in human airway epithelial cells. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor (LY294006) and ?-catenin shRNA reversed HMGB1-induced EMT. Moreover, HMGB1 induced expression of receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE), but not that of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4, and RAGE shRNA inhibited HMGB1-induced EMT in human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, we found that HMGB1 induced EMT through RAGE and the PI3K/AKT/GSK3?/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:KLF5 is an essential basic transcriptional factor that regulates a number of physiopathological processes. In this study, we tested whether and how KLF5 modulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated epithelial cells as an established model of EMT, we found that KLF5 was downregulated during EMT and that knockdown of KLF5 induced EMT even in the absence of TGF-? and EGF treatment, as indicated by phenotypic and molecular EMT properties. Array-based screening suggested and biochemical analyses confirmed that the microRNA 200 (miR-200) microRNAs, a group of well-established EMT repressors, were transcriptionally activated by KLF5 via its direct binding to the GC boxes in miR-200 gene promoters. Functionally, overexpression of miR-200 prevented the EMT induced by KLF5 knockdown or by TGF-? and EGF treatment, and ectopic expression of KLF5 attenuated TGF-?- and EGF-induced EMT by rescuing the expression of miR-200. In mouse prostates, knockout of Klf5 downregulated the miR-200 family and induced molecular changes indicative of EMT. These findings indicate that KLF5 maintains epithelial characteristics and prevents EMT by transcriptionally activating the miR-200 family in epithelial cells.
Project description:The transition of alveolar type II epithelial cells into fibroblasts has been reported to cause and/or aggravate pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which is characterized by fibroblast proliferation, an enhanced production and accumulation of ECM (extracellular matrix), alveolar wall damage and functional capillary unit loss. Traditional Chinese medicine Emodin has been reported to inhibit TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signalling. In the present study, neutrophil elastase (NE, also known as ELA2) treatment promoted EMT, Notch1 cleavage (NICD/Notch1 ratio increase) and NICD nuclear translocation in RLE-6TN cells and A549 cells. The promotive roles of NE treatment in these events were significantly reversed by Notch1 knockdown. Traditional Chinese medicine Emodin treatment remarkably inhibited the enzyme activity of NE, suppressed EMT, Notch1 cleavage and NICD nuclear translocation within RLE-6TN and A549 cells, while NE treatment significantly reversed the effects of Emodin. Moreover, in RLE-6TN, the effects of NE on EMT, Notch1 cleavage and NICD nuclear translocation were remarkably attenuated by Emodin treatment and more attenuated by the combination of Emodin and neutrophil elastase inhibitor Sivelestat or notch signal pathway inhibitor DAPT. In conclusion, we revealed the involvement of NE-induced Notch1 cleavage in the functions of Emodin suppressing NE-caused EMT in RLE-6TN cells and A549 cells. This novel mechanism of Emodin inhibiting EMT might extend the application of Emodin in PF treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fetal endocrine signals are generally considered to contribute to the timing of birth and the initiation of labor. Fetal tissues under oxidative stress release inflammatory mediators that lead to sterile inflammation within the maternal-fetal interface. Importantly, these inflammatory mediators are packaged into exosomes, bioactive cell-derived extra cellular vesicles that function as vectors and transport them from the fetal side to the uterine tissues where they deposit their cargo into target cells enhancing uterine inflammatory load. This exosome-mediated signaling is a novel mechanism for fetal-maternal communication. OBJECTIVE:This report tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress can induce fetal amnion cells to produce exosomes, which function as a paracrine intermediary between the fetus and mother and biochemically signal readiness for parturition. STUDY DESIGN:Primary amnion epithelial cells were grown in normal cell culture (control) or exposed to oxidative stress conditions (induced by cigarette smoke extract). Exosomes were isolated from cell supernatant by sequential ultracentrifugation. Exosomes were quantified and characterized based on size, shape, and biochemical markers. Myometrial, decidual, and placental cells (BeWo) were treated with 2 × 105, 2 × 107, and 2 × 109 control or oxidative stress-derived amnion epithelial cell exosomes for 24 hours. Entry of amnion epithelial cell exosomes into cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy of fluorescent-labeled exosomes. The effect of amnion epithelial cell exosomes on target cell inflammatory status was determined by measuring production of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and prostaglandin E2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inflammatory gene transcription factor (nuclear factor-??) activation status by immunoblotting for phosphorylated RelA/p65. Localization of NANOG in term human myometrium and decidua obtained from women before labor and during labor was performed using immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test to compare effects of exosomes from control and oxidative stress-treated amnion epithelial cells on inflammatory status of target cells. RESULTS:Amnion epithelial cells released ?125 nm, cup-shaped exosomes with ?899 and 1211 exosomes released per cell from control and oxidative stress-induced cells, respectively. Amnion epithelial cell exosomes were detected in each target cell type after treatment using confocal microscopy. Treatment with amnion epithelial cell exosomes increased secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and PGE2 and activation of NF-?? (each P < .05) in myometrial and decidual cells. Exosome treatments had no effect on interleukin-6 and PGE2 production in BeWo cells. NANOG staining was higher in term labor myometrium and decidua compared to tissues not in labor. CONCLUSION:In vitro, amnion epithelial cell exosomes lead to an increased inflammatory response in maternal uterine cells whereas placental cells showed refractoriness. Fetal cell exosomes may function to signal parturition by increasing maternal gestational cell inflammation.