ABSTRACT: Strain Ruminococcus gnavus TSDC20.2-1.1 (species Ruminococcus gnavus) was isolated from the fecal microbiota of a USA female at time point zero (bacterial isolates were sequenced from this donor on day 0 and 57). The species name was assigned by genome clustering.
Project description:We report two cases of bacteremia with the anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus. In both cases, the bacteremia was associated with diverticular disease. Preliminary conventional identification suggested peptostreptococci, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis did not produce scores high enough for species identification. Finally, the bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Project description:Dietary and host glycans shape the composition of the human gut microbiota with keystone carbohydrate-degrading species playing a critical role in maintaining the structure and function of gut microbial communities. Here, we focused on two major human gut symbionts, the mucin-degrader Ruminococcus gnavus ATCC 29149, and R. bromii L2-63, a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch (RS) in human colon. Using anaerobic individual and co-cultures of R. bromii and R. gnavus grown on mucin or starch as sole carbon source, we showed that starch degradation by R. bromii supported the growth of R. gnavus whereas R. bromii did not benefit from mucin degradation by R. gnavus. Further we analyzed the growth (quantitative PCR), metabolite production (1H NMR analysis), and bacterial transcriptional response (RNA-Seq) of R. bromii cultured with RS or soluble starch (SS) in the presence or absence of R. gnavus. In co-culture fermentations on starch, 1H NMR analysis showed that R. gnavus benefits from transient glucose and malto-oligosaccharides released by R. bromii upon starch degradation, producing acetate, formate, and lactate as main fermentation end-products. Differential expression analysis (DESeq 2) on starch (SS and RS) showed that the presence of R. bromii induced changes in R. gnavus transcriptional response of genes encoding several maltose transporters and enzymes involved in its metabolism such as maltose phosphorylase, in line with the ability of R. gnavus to utilize R. bromii starch degradation products. In the RS co-culture, R. bromii showed a significant increase in the induction of tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis genes and a decrease of vitamin B12 (VitB12)-dependent methionine biosynthesis as compared to the mono-culture, suggesting that Trp and VitB12 availability become limited in the presence of R. gnavus. Together this study showed a direct competition between R. bromii and R. gnavus on RS, suggesting that in vivo, the R. gnavus population inhabiting the mucus niche may be modulated by the supply of non-digestible carbohydrates reaching the colon such as RS.
Project description:Strain Ruminococcus gnavus TSDC16.1-1.1 (species Ruminococcus gnavus) was isolated from the fecal microbiota of a USA female at time point zero . The species name was assigned by genome clustering.
Project description:Lachnospiraceae is a bacterial family usually isolated from human and mammalian intestinal microbiota. However, its presence and role in the infant microbiota is not fully elucidated. This may be due to the strictly anaerobic behavior of its members that hampers the possibility of culture-dependent enumeration. Here, we report on the presence of this bacterial group, using biomolecular techniques, in stool samples from 25 babies aged between 1 and 24?months. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used as a first detection step, and data were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The DGGE showed the presence of Lachnospiraceae in infant fecal specimens and indicated the prevalence of Ruminococcus gnavus (R. gnavus). The qPCR confirmed the presence of the Clostridium XVIa group, Blautia genus, and R. gnavus, which are the main members of this family. We detected R. gnavus in 22 of 25 (88%) samples with a qPCR probe assay. Despite the difficulties associated with their detection and enumeration, Lachnospiraceae, and in particular R. gnavus, should be included in future studies on the infant microbiota composition.
Project description:Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease.
Project description:We report the case of a total hip arthroplasty infection caused by Ruminococcus gnavus in a 62-year-old man with ulcerative colitis. The bacterium was perfectly identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Project description:ISRgn1, an insertion sequence of the IS3 family, has been identified in the genome of a bacteriocin-negative mutant of Ruminococcus gnavus E1. The copy number of ISRgn1 in R. gnavus E1, as well as its distribution among phylogenetically E1-related strains, has been determined. Results obtained suggest that ISRgn1 is not indigenous to the R. gnavus phylogenetic group but that it can transpose in this bacterium.
Project description:Strain Ruminococcus gnavus TS7.3-1.1 (species Ruminococcus gnavus) was isolated from the fecal microbiota of a USA female at time point zero (bacterial isolates were sequenced from this donor on day 0, 364, 399, and 484). The species name was assigned by genome clustering.
Project description:Ruminococcus gnavus is a human gut symbiont wherein the ability to degrade mucins is mediated by an intramolecular trans-sialidase (RgNanH). RgNanH comprises a GH33 catalytic domain and a sialic acid-binding carbohydrate-binding module (CBM40). Here we used glycan arrays, STD NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and binding assays to determine the structure and function of RgNanH_CBM40 (RgCBM40). RgCBM40 displays the canonical CBM40 ?-sandwich fold and broad specificity towards sialoglycans with millimolar binding affinity towards ?2,3- or ?2,6-sialyllactose. RgCBM40 binds to mucus produced by goblet cells and to purified mucins, providing direct evidence for a CBM40 as a novel bacterial mucus adhesin. Bioinformatics data show that RgCBM40 canonical type domains are widespread among Firmicutes. Furthermore, binding of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to intestinal mucus is sialic acid mediated. Together, this study reveals novel features of CBMs which may contribute to the biogeography of symbiotic bacteria in the gut.