Project description:Contrary to spontaneous yawning-an ancient phenomenon common to vertebrates-contagious yawning (elicited by others' yawns) has been found only in highly social species and may reflect an emotional inter-individual connection. We investigated yawn contagion in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa. Owing to the complex socio-emotional and cognitive abilities of Sus scrofa, we posited that yawn contagion could be present in this species (Prediction 1) and influenced by individual/social factors (Prediction 2). In June-November 2018, on 104 semi-free ranging adolescent/adult pigs, 224 videos were recorded for video analysis on yawning. Kinship information was refined via genetic analyses. Statistical elaboration was conducted via GLMMs and non-parametric/randomization/cross-tabulation tests. We found yawn contagion in Sus scrofa, as it was more likely that pigs yawned when perceiving rather than not perceiving (yawning/control condition) others' yawns (response peak in the first out of three minutes). Yawn contagion was more likely: (1) in response to males' yawns; (2) as the age increased; (3) within short distance (1 m); (4) between full siblings, with no significant association between kinship and distance. The influence of kinship suggests that-as also hypothesized for Homo sapiens-yawn contagion might be linked with emotional communication and possibly contagion.
Project description:Large White and Meishan pigs were either non-treated or injected with mammalian 1-24 ACTH (Immediate Synachten, Novartis France) at the dose of 250 µg per animal. Pigs were sacrificed either immediately after capture from their home cage (non-treated animals) or 1 hour following ACTH injection. Adrenal glands were immediately collected from pigs and frozen on dry ice and then stored at -80°C until RNA isolation. Keywords: stress response, adrenal, gene expression, pig Overall design: 47 samples
Project description:Large White and Meishan pigs were either non-treated or injected with mammalian 1-24 ACTH (Immediate Synachten, Novartis France) at the dose of 250 µg per animal. Pigs were sacrificed either immediately after capture from their home cage (non-treated animals) or 1 hour following ACTH injection. Adrenal glands were immediately collected from pigs and frozen on dry ice and then stored at -80°C until RNA isolation. Keywords: stress response, adrenal, gene expression, pig 47 samples
Project description:Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar (Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.
Project description:Fecal samples (N = 10) from 6- to 8-week-old wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa), collected from an animal park in Hungary in April 2011, were analyzed using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. Kobuvirus (genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae) was detected in all (100 %) specimens, with the closest nucleotide (89 %) and amino acid (94 %) sequence identity of the strain wild boar/WB1-HUN/2011/HUN (JX177612) to the prototype porcine kobuvirus S-1-HUN (EU787450). This study suggests that genetically highly similar (practically the same geno-/serotype) porcine kobuvirus circulate in wild boars, the wildlife counterparts of domestic pigs. Wild boars could be an important host and reservoir for kobuvirus.
Project description:Although survival has improved in recent years, the prognosis of patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains poor. Despite substantial differences in anatomy, physiology, genetics, and metabolism, the overwhelming majority of preclinical testing relies on transgenic mice. Hence, while mice have allowed for tremendous advances in cancer biology, they have been a poor predictor of drug performance/toxicity in the clinic. Given the greater similarity of sus scrofa pigs to humans, we engineered transgenic sus scrofa expressing a LSL-KRASG12D-TP53R167H cassette. By applying Adeno-Cre to pancreatic duct cells in vitro, cells self-immortalized and established tumors in immunocompromised mice. When Adeno-Cre was administered to the main pancreatic duct in vivo, pigs developed extensive PDAC at the injection site hallmarked by excessive proliferation and desmoplastic stroma. This serves as the first large animal model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, and may allow for insight into new avenues of translational research not before possible in rodents.
Project description:The family Astroviridae consists of two genera, Avastrovirus and Mamastrovirus whose members are associated with gastroenteritis in avian and mammalian hosts, respectively. In this study, we report the first detection of astrovirus from fecal specimens of wild boars (Sus scrofa) using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The wild boar astrovirus (WBAstV-1/2011/HUN, JQ340310) genome is 6707 nucleotide long and had 76%, 95% and 56% amino acid (aa) identity in the ORF1a (852aa), ORF1b (522aa) and ORF2 (845aa) regions, respectively, to porcine astrovirus 4 (PAstV-4, JF713713), the closest match. This study indicates that wild boar could be a reservoir for astroviruses.
Project description:Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is involved in cell adhesion, motility and apoptosis, regulates mucosal immunity and maintains the functional integrity of intestinal epithelia. The upregulation of TFF3 expression in the weaning rat intestine attracted our interest. The present study hypothesized that TFF3 may serve a role in preventing diarrhea in weaning piglets, which is an important consideration in the pig farming industry. Previous recombinant TFF3 protein expression yields obtained from Escherichia coli were too low and the bioactivity of the protein was poor. Hence, this expression system was unsuitable for industrial applications. The present study explored the production of recombinant sus scrofa TFF3 in a Brevibacillus choshinensis (B. choshinensis) expression system, aiming to enhance the expression level of bioactive protein. To achieve this, the sus scrofa TFF3-encoding gene fragment was fused into an E. coli-Brevibacillus shuttle vector pNCMO2. High levels of TFF3 (30 mg/l) were produced and secreted into the B. choshinensis culture medium in soluble form with a molecular mass of 13.6 kDa and high immunoreactivity in western blotting. Thus, Brevibacillus may be used to produce useful mucosal factors for biochemical analyses and mucosal protection, and in industrial applications to produce novel inhibitors of diarrhea.
Project description:The pig is a well-studied model animal of biomedical and agricultural importance. Genes of this species, Sus scrofa, are known from experiments and predictions, and collected at the NCBI reference sequence database section. Gene reconstruction from transcribed gene evidence of RNA-seq now can accurately and completely reproduce the biological gene sets of animals and plants. Such a gene set for the pig is reported here, including human orthologs missing from current NCBI and Ensembl reference pig gene sets, additional alternate transcripts, and other improvements. Methodology for accurate and complete gene set reconstruction from RNA is used: the automated SRA2Genes pipeline of EvidentialGene project.
Project description:Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period.