Project description:In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the transcriptional-regulatory network that governs flocculation remains poorly understood. Here, we systematically screened an array of transcription factor deletion and overexpression strains for flocculation and performed microarray expression profiling and ChIP-chip analysis to identify the flocculin target genes. We identified five transcription factors that displayed novel roles in the activation or inhibition of flocculation (Rfl1, Adn2, Adn3, Sre2, and Yox1), in addition to the previously-known Mbx2, Cbf11, and Cbf12 regulators. Overexpression of mbx2(+) and deletion of rfl1(+) resulted in strong flocculation and transcriptional upregulation of gsf2(+)/pfl1(+) and several other putative flocculin genes (pfl2(+)-pfl9(+)). Overexpression of the pfl(+) genes singly was sufficient to trigger flocculation, and enhanced flocculation was observed in several combinations of double pfl(+) overexpression. Among the pfl1(+) genes, only loss of gsf2(+) abrogated the flocculent phenotype of all the transcription factor mutants and prevented flocculation when cells were grown in inducing medium containing glycerol and ethanol as the carbon source, thereby indicating that Gsf2 is the dominant flocculin. In contrast, the mild flocculation of adn2(+) or adn3(+) overexpression was likely mediated by the transcriptional activation of cell wall-remodeling genes including gas2(+), psu1(+), and SPAC4H3.03c. We also discovered that Mbx2 and Cbf12 displayed transcriptional autoregulation, and Rfl1 repressed gsf2(+) expression in an inhibitory feed-forward loop involving mbx2(+). These results reveal that flocculation in S. pombe is regulated by a complex network of multiple transcription factors and target genes encoding flocculins and cell wall-remodeling enzymes. Moreover, comparisons between the flocculation transcriptional-regulatory networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pombe indicate substantial rewiring of transcription factors and cis-regulatory sequences.
Project description:Uridylation-dependent RNA decay is a widespread eukaryotic pathway modulating RNA homeostasis. Terminal uridylyltransferases (Tutases) add untemplated uridyl residues to RNA 3'-ends, marking them for degradation by the U-specific exonuclease Dis3L2. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Cid1 uridylates a variety of RNAs. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and impact of uridylation-dependent RNA decay in S. pombe by transcriptionally profiling cid1 and dis3L2 deletion strains. We found that the exonuclease Dis3L2 represents a bottleneck in uridylation-dependent mRNA decay, whereas Cid1 plays a redundant role that can be complemented by other Tutases. Deletion of dis3L2 elicits a cellular stress response, upregulating transcription of genes involved in protein folding and degradation. Misfolded proteins accumulate in both deletion strains, yet only trigger a strong stress response in dis3L2 deficient cells. While a deletion of cid1 increases sensitivity to protein misfolding stress, a dis3L2 deletion showed no increased sensitivity or was even protective. We furthermore show that uridylyl- and adenylyltransferases cooperate to generate a 5'-NxAUUAAAA-3' RNA motif on dak2 mRNA. Our studies elucidate the role of uridylation-dependent RNA decay as part of a global mRNA surveillance, and we found that perturbation of this pathway leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins and elicits cellular stress responses.
Project description:Mediator is an evolutionary conserved coregulator complex required for transcription of almost all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator consists of two dissociable components-a core complex organized into a head and middle domain as well as the Cdk8 regulatory subcomplex. In this work we describe a functional characterization of the S. pombe Mediator. We report the identification of the S. pombe Med20 head subunit and the isolation of ts alleles of the core head subunit encoding med17+. Biochemical analysis of med8(ts), med17(ts), Deltamed18, Deltamed20 and Deltamed27 alleles revealed a stepwise head domain molecular architecture. Phenotypical analysis of Cdk8 and head module alleles including expression profiling classified the Mediator mutant alleles into one of two groups. Cdk8 module mutants flocculate due to overexpression of adhesive cell-surface proteins. Head domain-associated mutants display a hyphal growth phenotype due to defective expression of factors required for cell separation regulated by transcription factor Ace2. Comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator expression data reveals that these functionally distinct modules are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae.
Project description:We have identified a family of six hexose transporter genes (Ght1 to Ght6) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sequence homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian hexose transporters (Hxtp and GLUTp, respectively) and secondary-structure predictions of 12 transmembrane domains for each of the Ght proteins place them into the sugar porter subfamily within the major facilitator superfamily. Interestingly, among this sugar porter family, the emerging S. pombe hexose transporter family clusters are separate from monosaccharide transporters of other yeasts (S. cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Candida albicans) and of humans, suggesting that these proteins form a distinct structural family of hexose transporters. Expression of the Ght1, Ght2, Ght5, and Ght6 genes in the S. cerevisiae mutant RE700A may functionally complement its D-glucose uptake-deficient phenotype. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-PCR showed that among all Ght's of S. pombe, Ght5 is the most prominently expressed hexose transporter. Ght1p, Ght2p, and Ght5p displayed significantly higher specificities for D-glucose than for D-fructose. Analysis of the previously described S. pombe D-glucose transport-deficient mutant YGS-5 revealed that this strain is defective in the Ght1, Ght5, and Ght6 genes. Based on an analysis of three S. pombe strains bearing single or double mutations in Ght3 and Ght4, we conclude that the Ght3p function is required for D-gluconate transport in S. pombe. The function of Ght4p remains to be clarified. Ght6p exhibited a slightly higher affinity to D-fructose than to D-glucose, and among the Ght's it is the transporter with the highest specificity for D-fructose.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Schizosaccharomyces pombe pik1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, reported to bind Cdc4, but not Cdc4(G107S). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Gene deletion revealed that pik1 is essential. In cells with pik1 deleted, ectopic expression of a loss-of-function allele, created by fusion to a temperature-sensitive dihydrofolate reductase, allowed normal cell proliferation at 25 degrees C. At 36 degrees C, cells arrested with abnormally thick, misplaced or supernumerary septa, indicating a defect late in septation. In addition to being Golgi associated, ectopically expressed GFP-tagged Pik1 was observed at the medial cell plane late in cytokinesis. New alleles, created by site-directed mutagenesis, were expressed ectopically. Lipid kinase and Cdc4-binding activity assays were performed. Pik1(D709A) was kinase-dead, but bound Cdc4. Pik1(R838A) did not bind Cdc4, but was an active kinase. Genomic integration of these substitutions in S. pombe and complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae pik1-101 cells revealed that D709 is essential in both cases while R838 is dispensable. In S. pombe, ectopic expression of pik1 was dominantly lethal; while, pik1(D709A,R838A) was innocuous, pik1(R838A) was almost innocuous, and pik1(D709A) produced partial lethality and septation defects. The pik1 ectopic expression lethal phenotype was suppressed in cdc4(G107S). Thus, D709 is essential for kinase activity and septation. CONCLUSIONS:Pik1 kinase activity is required for septation. The Pik1 R838 residue is required for important protein-protein interactions, possibly with Cdc4.
Project description:Glutathione synthetase predicted from the reported gene sequence from Schizosaccharomyces pombe is substantially smaller than the equivalent protein predicted from the cDNAs sequenced from Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Sequence alignments of the proteins encoded by the cDNA clones for glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis and S. pombe show that the Arabidopsis protein contains 200 extra amino acids at the N-terminus. In order to test if this sequence is essential in the function of the protein, the full-length Arabidopsis protein and as two N-terminal deletions (Delta67-71 and Delta67-200) were expressed in S. pombe mutant MN101, which lacks endogenous glutathione synthetase activity. Although the wild-type plant cDNA could complement the yeast mutation, neither deletion mutant was able to restore glutathione-dependent cadmium resistance. When the three proteins were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, they accumulated to the same level, but only the plasmid containing the full-length cDNA, pFLAG222, produced detectable enzyme activity in vitro. These results suggested that the N-terminus of the Arabidopsis glutathione synthetase is essential for its function and opened up the possibility that there was a sequencing error in the reported S. pombe sequence. Therefore the gsh2 sequence from wild-type S. pombe and the mutant strain MN101 were determined. The wild-type S. pombe gsh2 encodes a protein that is about the same length as that found in Arabidopsis, and the MN101 mutation involves a frameshift mutation early in the glutathione synthetase reading frame.
Project description:Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells divide by medial fission through contraction of an actomyosin ring and deposition of a multilayered division septum that must be cleaved to release the two daughter cells. Here we describe the identification of seven genes (adg1(+), adg2(+), adg3(+), cfh4(+), agn1(+), eng1(+), and mid2(+)) whose expression is induced by the transcription factor Ace2p. The expression of all of these genes varied during the cell cycle, maximum transcription being observed during septation. At least three of these proteins (Eng1p, Agn1p, and Cfh4p) localize to a ring-like structure that surrounds the septum region during cell separation. Deletion of the previously uncharacterized genes was not lethal to the cells, but produced defects or delays in cell separation to different extents. Electron microscopic observation of mutant cells indicated that the most severe defect is found in eng1Delta agn1Delta cells, lacking the Eng1p endo-beta-1,3-glucanase and the Agn1p endo-alpha-glucanase. The phenotype of this mutant closely resembled that of ace2Delta mutants, forming branched chains of cells. This suggests that these two proteins are the main activities required for cell separation to be completed.
Project description:2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG) is a toxic glucose analog. To identify genes involved in 2-DG toxicity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we screened a wild-type overexpression library for genes which render cells 2-DG resistant. A gene we termed odr1, encoding an uncharacterized hydrolase, led to strong resistance and altered invertase expression when overexpressed. We speculate that Odr1 neutralizes the toxic form of 2-DG, similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dog1 and Dog2 phosphatases which dephosphorylate 2-DG-6-phosphate synthesized by hexokinase. In a complementary approach, we screened a haploid deletion library to identify 2-DG-resistant mutants. This screen identified the genes snf5, ypa1, pas1 and pho7 In liquid medium, deletions of these genes conferred 2-DG resistance preferentially under glucose-repressed conditions. The deletion mutants expressed invertase activity more constitutively than the control strain, indicating defects in the control of glucose repression. No S. cerevisiae orthologs of the pho7 gene is known, and no 2-DG resistance has been reported for any of the deletion mutants of the other genes identified here. Moreover, 2-DG leads to derepressed invertase activity in S. pombe, while in S. cerevisiae it becomes repressed. Taken together, these findings suggest that mechanisms involved in 2-DG resistance differ between budding and fission yeasts.
Project description:Meiosis is the process by which haploid gametes are produced from diploid precursor cells. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to characterize the meiotic proteome in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We compared relative levels of proteins extracted from cells harvested around meiosis I with those of meiosis II, and proteins from premeiotic S phase with the interval between meiotic divisions, when S phase is absent. Our proteome datasets revealed peptides corresponding to short open reading frames (sORFs) that have been previously identified by ribosome profiling as new translated regions. We verified expression of selected sORFs by Western blotting and analyzed the phenotype of deletion mutants. Our data provide a resource for studying meiosis that may help understand differences between meiosis I and meiosis II and how S phase is suppressed between the two meiotic divisions.