Project description:The five-protein MuvB core complex is highly conserved in animals. This nuclear complex interacts with RB-family tumor suppressor proteins and E2F-DP transcription factors to form DREAM complexes that repress genes that regulate cell cycle progression and cell fate. The MuvB core complex also interacts with Myb family oncoproteins to form the Myb-MuvB complexes that activate many of the same genes. We show that animal-type Myb genes are present in Bilateria, Cnidaria and Placozoa, the latter including the simplest known animal species. However, bilaterian nematode worms lost their animal-type Myb genes hundreds of millions of years ago. Nevertheless, amino acids in the LIN9 and LIN52 proteins that directly interact with the MuvB-binding domains of human B-Myb and Drosophila Myb are conserved in C aenorhabditis elegans Here, we show that, despite greater than 500 million years since their last common ancestor, the Drosophila melanogaster Myb protein can bind to the nematode LIN9-LIN52 proteins in vitro and can cause a synthetic multivulval (synMuv) phenotype in vivo This phenotype is similar to that caused by loss-of-function mutations in C. elegans synMuvB-class genes including those that encode homologs of the MuvB core, RB, E2F and DP. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the MuvB-binding domain of Drosophila Myb that disrupt its functions in vitro and in vivo also disrupt these activities in C. elegans We speculate that nematodes and other animals may contain another protein that can bind to LIN9 and LIN52 in order to activate transcription of genes repressed by DREAM complexes.
Project description:In Drosophila, mutation of the oncogene Myb reduced the expression of mitotic genes, such as polo and ial, and caused multiple mitotic defects, including disrupted chromosome condensation and abnormal spindles. We now show that binucleate cells, the hallmark phenotype of cytokinesis failure, accumulate in Myb-null ovarian follicle cell and wing disc epithelia. Myb functions as an activator in the generally repressive Drosophila RBF, E2F2, and Myb (dREAM)/Myb-MuvB complex. Absence of the dREAM subunit Mip130 or E2F2 suppressed the Myb-null cytokinesis defect. Therefore, we used Myb-null binucleate cells as a quantitative phenotypic readout of transcriptional repression by the dREAM complex. In the absence of Myb, the complex was sensitive to the dose of the subunits E2F2, Mip120, Caf1, and Lin-52 but not Mip130 or Mip40. Surprisingly, reduction of the dose of His2Av/H2A.z also suppressed the Myb-null binucleate cell phenotype, suggesting a novel role for this variant histone in transcriptional repression by the dREAM complex.
Project description:Members of the Myb oncoprotein and E2F-Rb tumor suppressor protein families are present within the same highly conserved multiprotein transcriptional repressor complex, named either as Myb and synthetic multivuval class B (Myb-MuvB) or as Drosophila Rb E2F and Myb-interacting proteins (dREAM). We now report that the animal-specific C terminus of Drosophila Myb but not the more highly conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain is necessary and sufficient for (i) adult viability, (ii) proper localization to chromosomes in vivo, (iii) regulation of gene expression in vivo, and (iv) interaction with the highly conserved core of the MuvB/dREAM transcriptional repressor complex. In addition, we have identified a conserved peptide motif that is required for this interaction. Our results imply that an ancient function of Myb in regulating G2/M genes in both plants and animals appears to have been transferred from the DNA-binding domain to the animal-specific C-terminal domain. Increased expression of B-MYB/MYBL2, the human ortholog of Drosophila Myb, correlates with poor prognosis in human patients with breast cancer. Therefore, our results imply that the specific interaction of the C terminus of Myb with the MuvB/dREAM core complex may provide an attractive target for the development of cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Overexpression of the oncogene MYBL2 (B-Myb) is associated with increased cell proliferation and serves as a marker of poor prognosis in cancer. However, the mechanism by which B-Myb alters the cell cycle is not fully understood. In proliferating cells, B-Myb interacts with the MuvB core complex including LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, RBBP4, and LIN54, forming the MMB (Myb-MuvB) complex, and promotes transcription of genes required for mitosis. Alternatively, the MuvB core interacts with Rb-like protein p130 and E2F4-DP1 to form the DREAM complex that mediates global repression of cell cycle genes in G0/G1, including a subset of MMB target genes. Here, we show that overexpression of B-Myb disrupts the DREAM complex in human cells, and this activity depends on the intact MuvB-binding domain in B-Myb. Furthermore, we found that B-Myb regulates the protein expression levels of the MuvB core subunit LIN52, a key adapter for assembly of both the DREAM and MMB complexes, by a mechanism that requires S28 phosphorylation site in LIN52. Given that high expression of B-Myb correlates with global loss of repression of DREAM target genes in breast and ovarian cancer, our findings offer mechanistic insights for aggressiveness of cancers with MYBL2 amplification, and establish the rationale for targeting B-Myb to restore cell cycle control.
Project description:The Drosophila melanogaster Myb-MuvB/dREAM complex (MMB/dREAM) participates in both the activation and repression of developmentally regulated genes and origins of DNA replication. Mutants in MMB subunits exhibit diverse phenotypes, including lethality, eye defects, reduced fecundity, and sterility. Here, we used P-element excision to generate mutations in lin-52, which encodes the smallest subunit of the MMB/dREAM complex. lin-52 is required for viability, as null mutants die prior to pupariation. The generation of somatic and germ line mutant clones indicates that lin-52 is required for adult eye development and for early embryogenesis via maternal effects. Interestingly, the maternal-effect embryonic lethality, larval lethality, and adult eye defects could be suppressed by mutations in other subunits of the MMB/dREAM complex. These results suggest that a partial MMB/dREAM complex is responsible for the lethality and eye defects of lin-52 mutants. Furthermore, these findings support a model in which the Lin-52 and Myb proteins counteract the repressive activities of the other members of the MMB/dREAM complex at specific genomic loci in a developmentally controlled manner.
Project description:The DREAM complex represses cell cycle genes during quiescence through scaffolding MuvB proteins with E2F4/5 and the Rb tumor suppressor paralog p107 or p130. Upon cell cycle entry, MuvB dissociates from p107/p130 and recruits B-Myb and FoxM1 for up-regulating mitotic gene expression. To understand the biochemical mechanisms underpinning DREAM function and regulation, we investigated the structural basis for DREAM assembly. We identified a sequence in the MuvB component LIN52 that binds directly to the pocket domains of p107 and p130 when phosphorylated on the DYRK1A kinase site S28. A crystal structure of the LIN52-p107 complex reveals that LIN52 uses a suboptimal LxSxExL sequence together with the phosphate at nearby S28 to bind the LxCxE cleft of the pocket domain with high affinity. The structure explains the specificity for p107/p130 over Rb in the DREAM complex and how the complex is disrupted by viral oncoproteins. Based on insights from the structure, we addressed how DREAM is disassembled upon cell cycle entry. We found that p130 and B-Myb can both bind the core MuvB complex simultaneously but that cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation of p130 weakens its association. Together, our data inform a novel target interface for studying MuvB and p130 function and the design of inhibitors that prevent tumor escape in quiescence.
Project description:During Drosophila spermatogenesis, testis-specific meiotic arrest complex (tMAC) and testis-specific TBP-associated factors (tTAF) contribute to activation of hundreds of genes required for meiosis and spermiogenesis. Intriguingly, tMAC is paralogous to the broadly expressed complex Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM and Mip40 protein is shared by both complexes. tMAC acts as a gene activator in spermatocytes, while MMB/dREAM was shown to repress gene activity in many cell types.Our study addresses the intricate interplay between tMAC, tTAF, and MMB/dREAM during spermatogenesis. We used cell type-specific DamID to build the DNA-binding profiles of Cookie monster (tMAC), Cannonball (tTAF), and Mip40 (MMB/dREAM and tMAC) proteins in male germline cells. Incorporating the whole transcriptome analysis, we characterized the regulatory effects of these proteins and identified their gene targets. This analysis revealed that tTAFs complex is involved in activation of achi, vis, and topi meiosis arrest genes, implying that tTAFs may indirectly contribute to the regulation of Achi, Vis, and Topi targets. To understand the relationship between tMAC and MMB/dREAM, we performed Mip40 DamID in tTAF- and tMAC-deficient mutants demonstrating meiosis arrest phenotype. DamID profiles of Mip40 were highly dynamic across the stages of spermatogenesis and demonstrated a strong dependence on tMAC in spermatocytes. Integrative analysis of our data indicated that MMB/dREAM represses genes that are not expressed in spermatogenesis, whereas tMAC recruits Mip40 for subsequent gene activation in spermatocytes.Discovered interdependencies allow to formulate a renewed model for tMAC and tTAFs action in Drosophila spermatogenesis demonstrating how tissue-specific genes are regulated.
Project description:Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM is a nine subunit complex first described in Drosophila as a repressor of transcription, dependent upon E2F2 and the RBFs. Myb, an integral member of MMB, curiously plays no role in the silencing of the test genes previously analyzed. Moreover, Myb plays an activating role in DNA replication in Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells. The essential functions for Myb are executed as part of MMB. This duality of function lead to the hypothesis that MMB, which contains both known activator and repressor proteins, might function as part of a switching mechanism that is dependent upon DNA sites and developmental context. Keywords: Drosophila Myb-MuvB/dREAM, ChIP-chip Overall design: We used proliferating Drosophila Kc tissue culture cells to explore the genomic locations of MMB following chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and tiling array analysis. Purified DNAs were then fragmented, TdT labeled and hybridized to the Affymetrix Drosophila genome Tiling Array 1.0 (reverse part number 520054), as previously described (Manak et al. 2006) Three CEL files were used as input control DNA for all experiments: Dro_AS_DroS2_Input_C01_B1_T1.CEL Dro_AS_DroS2_Input_C01_B1_T2.CEL Dro_AS_DroS2_Input_C01_B1_T3.CEL Replicate copies of these three files exist on all 5 samples (GSM231023-GSM231027), and therefore, the TAR file for this series will have 5 copies of each of these files (one for each GSM).