Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen which is often the cause of major morbidity and mortality in both hospital and community settings. For this reason, we investigated the host cell early immune resoponse to S. aureus infection using genome-wide analysis. To do this, we infected Mus musculus RAW264.7 cells with S. aureus alone or in the presence of free peptidoglycan (PG), which appears in the S. aureus cell wall. Post infection, we performed a genome-wide analysis of RAW246.7 cells to identify significant changes in the gene expression profile. Further, we analyzed the infected RAW246.7 cells with transmission electron microscopy looking for the presence of bacterial cells inside the host cell. We also used flow cytometry to determine whether cells had induced apoptosis. The results showed that S. aureus induced apoptosis in the RAW246.7 cells but did not effectively clear away intracellular bacteria cells. However, S. aureus + PG treatment inhibited the apoptosis and activated the host cell inflammation response, possibly involving NF-?B and JAK-STAT pathways, as identified by genome-wide analysis, in RAW246.7 cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time that an independent application of free PG was capable of activating immune responses the host cells.
Project description:Copy number variation is an important dimension of genetic diversity and has implications in development and disease. As an important model organism, the mouse is a prime candidate for copy number variant (CNV) characterization, but this has yet to be completed for a large sample size. Here we report CNV analysis of publicly available, high-density microarray data files for 351 mouse tail samples, including 290 mice that had not been characterized for CNVs previously.We found 9634 putative autosomal CNVs across the samples affecting 6.87% of the mouse reference genome. We find significant differences in the degree of CNV uniqueness (single sample occurrence) and the nature of CNV-gene overlap between wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains. CNV-gene overlap was associated with lipid metabolism, pheromone response and olfaction compared to immunity, carbohydrate metabolism and amino-acid metabolism for wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains, respectively. Using two subspecies of wild-caught Mus musculus, we identified putative CNVs unique to those subspecies and show this diversity is better captured by wild-derived laboratory strains than by the classical laboratory strains. A total of 9 genic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) were selected for experimental confirmation by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).The analysis we present is a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Mus musculus, which increases the number of known variants in the species and will accelerate the identification of novel variants in future studies.
Project description:Cellular differentiation involves widespread epigenetic reprogramming, including modulation of DNA methylation patterns. Using Differential Methylation Hybridization (DMH) in combination with a custom DMH array containing 51,243 features covering more than 16,000 murine genes, we carried out a genome-wide screen for cell- and tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in in-vitro induced neural stem cells (NSCs) and 8 differentiated embryonic and adult tissues. Unsupervised clustering of the generated data showed distinct cell- and tissue-specific DNA methylation profiles, revealing 202 significant tDMRs (p<0.005) between ESCs and NSCs and a further 380 tDMRs (p<0.05) between NSCs/ESCs and embryonic brain tissue. We validated these tDMRs using direct bisulfite sequencing (DBS) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on chip (MeDIP-chip). Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the genes associated with these tDMRs showed significant (absolute Z score>1.96) enrichment for genes involved in neural differentiation, including, for example, Jag1 and Tcf4. Our results provide robust evidence for the relevance of DNA methylation in early neural development and identify novel marker candidates for neural cell differentiation.
Project description:Cellular differentiation involves widespread epigenetic reprogramming, including modulation of DNA methylation patterns. Using Differential Methylation Hybridization (DMH) in combination with a custom DMH array containing more than 53,000 features covering more than 16,000 murine genes, we carried out a genome-wide screen for cell- and tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in in-vitro induced neural stem cells (NSCs) and 8 differentiated embryonic and adult tissues. Unsupervised clustering of the generated data showed distinct cell- and tissue-specific DNA methylation profiles, revealing 202 significant tDMRs (p<0.005) between ESCs and NSCs and a further 380 tDMRs (p<0.05) between NSCs/ESCs and embryonic brain tissue. We validated these tDMRs using direct bisulfite sequencing (DBS) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on chip (MeDIP-chip). Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the genes associated with these tDMRs showed significant (absolute Z score >1.96) enrichment for genes involved in neural differentiation, including e.g. Jag1 and Tcf4. Our results provide robust evidence for the relevance of DNA methylation in early neural development and identify novel marker candidates for neural cell differentiation.
Project description:Mus musculus is the only known species from which embryonic stem cells (ESC) can be isolated under conditions requiring only leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Other species are non-permissive in LIF media, and form developmentally primed epiblast stem cells (EpiSC) similar to cells derived from post-implantation, egg cylinders. To evaluate whether non-permissiveness extends to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we derived iPSC from the eight founder strains of the mouse Collaborative Cross. Two strains, NOD/ShiLtJ and the WSB/EiJ, were non-permissive, consistent with the previous classification of NOD/ShiLtJ as non-permissive to ESC derivation. We determined non-permissiveness is recessive, and that non-permissive genomes do not compliment. We overcame iPSC non-permissiveness by using GSK3B and MEK inhibitors with serum, a technique we termed 2iS reprogramming. Although used for ESC derivation, GSK3B and MEK inhibitors have not been used during iPSC reprogramming because they inhibit survival of progenitor differentiated cells. iPSC derived in 2iS are more transcriptionally similar to ESC than EpiSC, indicating that 2iS reprogramming acts to overcome genetic background constraints. Finally, of species tested for ESC or iPSC derivation, only some M. musculus strains are permissive under LIF culture conditions suggesting that this is an evolutionarily derived characteristic in the M. musculus lineage.
Project description:Rodent betaherpesviruses vary considerably in genomic content, and these variations can result in a distinct pathogenicity. Therefore, the identification of unknown betaherpesviruses in house mice (Mus musculus), the most important rodent host species in basic research, is of importance. During a search for novel herpesviruses in house mice using herpesvirus consensus PCR and attempts to isolate viruses in tissue culture, we identified a previously unknown betaherpesvirus. The primary PCR search in mouse organs revealed the presence of known strains of murine cytomegalovirus (Murid herpesvirus 1) and of Mus musculus rhadinovirus 1 only. However, the novel virus was detected after incubation of organ pieces in fibroblast tissue culture and subsequent PCR analysis of the supernatants. Long-distance PCR amplification including the DNA polymerase and glycoprotein B genes revealed a 3.4 kb sequence that was similar to sequences of rodent cytomegaloviruses. Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly identified murine virus is most similar to the English isolate of rat cytomegalovirus, thereby raising the possibility that two distinct CMV lineages have evolved in both Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus.
Project description:The transcriptional changes that occur in response to oxidative stress help direct the decision to maintain cell viability or enter a cell death pathway. Cyclin C-Cdk8 is a conserved kinase that associates with the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex that stimulates or represses transcription depending on the locus. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, displays partial translocation into the cytoplasm. These findings open the possibility that cyclin C relocalization is a regulatory mechanism governing oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes. In the present study, the cyclin C-dependent transcriptome was determined and compared to transcriptional changes occurring in oxidatively stressed Mus musculus embryonic fibroblasts. We observed a similar number (∼2000) of genes up or downregulated in oxidatively stressed cells. Induced genes include cellular repair/survival factors while repressed loci were generally involved in proliferation or differentiation. Depleting cyclin C in unstressed cells produced an approximately equal number of genes (∼2400) that were repressed by, or whose transcription required, cyclin C. Consistent with the possibility that cyclin C nuclear release contributes to transcriptional remodeling in response to oxidative stress, we found that 37% cyclin C-dependent genes were downregulated following stress. Moreover, 20% of cyclin C- repressed genes were induced in response to stress. These findings are consistent with a model that cyclin C relocalization to the cytoplasm, and corresponding inactivation of Cdk8, represents a regulatory mechanism to repress and stimulate transcription of stress-responsive genes.
Project description:DNA cytosine methylation is a central epigenetic modification that has essential roles in cellular processes including genome regulation, development and disease. Here we present the first genome-wide, single-base-resolution maps of methylated cytosines in a mammalian genome, from both human embryonic stem cells and fetal fibroblasts, along with comparative analysis of messenger RNA and small RNA components of the transcriptome, several histone modifications, and sites of DNA-protein interaction for several key regulatory factors. Widespread differences were identified in the composition and patterning of cytosine methylation between the two genomes. Nearly one-quarter of all methylation identified in embryonic stem cells was in a non-CG context, suggesting that embryonic stem cells may use different methylation mechanisms to affect gene regulation. Methylation in non-CG contexts showed enrichment in gene bodies and depletion in protein binding sites and enhancers. Non-CG methylation disappeared upon induced differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, and was restored in induced pluripotent stem cells. We identified hundreds of differentially methylated regions proximal to genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation, and widespread reduced methylation levels in fibroblasts associated with lower transcriptional activity. These reference epigenomes provide a foundation for future studies exploring this key epigenetic modification in human disease and development.
Project description:Dynamic exchange of a subset of nucleosomes in vivo plays important roles in epigenetic inheritance of chromatin states, chromatin insulator function, chromosome folding, and the maintenance of the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells. Here, we extend a pulse-chase strategy for carrying out genome-wide measurements of histone dynamics to several histone variants in murine embryonic stem cells and somatic tissues, recapitulating expected characteristics of the well characterized H3.3 histone variant. We extended this system to the less-studied MacroH2A2 variant, commonly described as a "repressive" histone variant whose accumulation in chromatin is thought to fix the epigenetic state of differentiated cells. Unexpectedly, we found that while large intergenic blocks of MacroH2A2 were stably associated with the genome, promoter-associated peaks of MacroH2A2 exhibited relatively rapid exchange dynamics in ES cells, particularly at highly-transcribed genes. Upon differentiation to embryonic fibroblasts, MacroH2A2 was gained primarily in additional long, stably associated blocks across gene-poor regions, while overall turnover at promoters was greatly dampened. Our results reveal unanticipated dynamic behavior of the MacroH2A2 variant in pluripotent cells, and provide a resource for future studies of tissue-specific histone dynamics in vivo.