Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation model and received tacrolimus and steroids as well as irradiation or CD8 antibody for immunosuppression. The likely source of the infection was pigs that were shedding the identified PRRSV, which were housed in a separate room of the same building. This case report provides evidence that a virus closely related to an attenuated live vaccine might cause severe pneumonia and death in PRRSVseronegative pigs receiving immunosuppressive treatment. We recommend strict barrier housing for immunocompromised pigs.
Project description:A serologic investigation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in hybrid wild boar herds was conducted during 2008-2009. PRRSV isolates with novel genetic markers were recovered. Experimental infection of pigs indicated that hybrid wild boars are involved in the epidemiology of PRRSV.
Project description:Both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza are acute, highly contagious swine diseases. These diseases pose severe threats for the swine industry and cause heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we have developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H3N2 influenza virus and investigated its immunogenicity in mice. The HA and M1 proteins from the H3N2 influenza virus and the PRRSV GP5 protein fused to the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the NA protein were both incorporated into the chimeric VLPs. Analysis of the immune responses showed that the chimeric VLPs elicited serum antibodies specific for both PRRSV GP5 and the H3N2 HA protein, and they stimulated cellular immune responses compared to the responses to equivalent amounts of inactivated viruses. Taken together, the results suggested that the chimeric VLP vaccine represents a potential strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control PRRSV and H3N2 influenza virus.
Project description:We conducted a serologic investigation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in hybrid wild boar herds in China during 2008-2009. PRRSV isolates with novel genetic markers were recovered. Experimental infection of pigs indicated that hybrid wild boars are involved in the epidemiology of PRRSV.
Project description:PURPOSE OF WORK:The non-structural protein 4 (Nsp4) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) functions as a 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) and plays a pivotal role in gene expression and replication. We have examined the biochemical properties of PRRSV 3CLpro and identified those amino acid residues involved in its catalytic activity as a prelude to developing anti-PRRSV strategies. The 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The optimal temperature and pH for its proteolytic activity were 8°C and 7.5, respectively. Na(+) (1000 mM) and K(+) (500 mM) were not inhibitory to its activity but Cu(2+), Zn(2+), PMSF and EDTA were significantly inhibitory. His(39), Asp(64) and Ser(118) residues were identified to form the catalytic triad of PRRSV 3CLpro by a series of site-directed mutagenesis analysis.
Project description:Following the 2006 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, the causative agent was identified as the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). To investigate whether the HP-PRRSV variant continues circulating and accelerating evolution, we sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of the identified HP-PRRSV field strain SD16. The sequence data indicate that the HP-PRRSV variant continues to prevail and accelerate evolution, especially in the nonstructural protein.
Project description:Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) possesses greater replicative capacity and pathogenicity than classical PRRSV. However, the factors that lead to enhanced replication and pathogenicity remain unclear. In our study, an alignment of all available full-length sequences of North American-type PRRSVs (n = 204) revealed two consistent amino acid mutations that differed between HP-PRRSV and classical PRRSV and were located at positions 519 and 544 in nonstructural protein 9. Next, a series of mutant viruses with either single or double amino acid replacements were generated from HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a infectious cDNA clones. Deletion of either of the amino acids led to a complete loss of virus viability. In both Marc-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages, the replicative efficiencies of mutant viruses based on HuN4 were reduced compared to the parent, whereas the replication level of CH-1a-derived mutant viruses was increased. Plaque growth assays showed clear differences between mutant and parental viruses. In infected piglets, the pathogenicity of HuN4-derived mutant viruses, assessed through clinical symptoms, viral load in sera, histopathology examination, and thymus atrophy, was reduced. Our results indicate that the amino acids at positions 519 and 544 in NSP9 are involved in the replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV and contribute to enhanced pathogenicity. This study is the first to identify specific amino acids involved in PRRSV replication or pathogenicity. These findings will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV replication and pathogenicity, leading to better therapeutic and prognostic options to combat the virus.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a significant threat to the global pig industry. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) first emerged in China in 2006 and has subsequently spread across Asia, causing considerable damage to local economies. HP-PRRSV strains possess a greater replication capacity and higher pathogenicity than classical PRRSV strains, although the mechanisms that underlie these characteristics are unclear. In the present study, we identified two mutations in HP-PRRSV strains that distinguish them from classical PRRSV strains. Further experiments that swapped the two mutations in an HP-PRRSV strain and a classical PRRSV strain demonstrated that they are involved in the replication efficiency of the virus and its virulence. Our findings have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV replication and pathogenicity and also provide new avenues of research for the study of other viruses.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a member of the Arteriviridae family of Nidovirales, is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, which results in enormous economic losses in the swine industry. As the second protein encoded by the PRRSV genome, nsp1beta cleaves itself from the downstream nsp2 protein via a C-terminal papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) domain. Although nsp1beta is known to be involved in virulence, its precise role in the process of viral infection remains unclear. In this work, we describe the homodimeric crystal structure of PRRSV nsp1beta in its natural, self-processed form. We show that the architecture of its N-terminal domain (NTD) adopts a fold closely resembling that of several known nucleases and has intrinsic nuclease activity that is strongly activated by manganese ions in vitro. Key features, however, distinguish nsp1beta from characterized nucleases, including the C-terminal PCP domain (which is responsible for the self-release of nsp1beta from nsp2), a linker domain (LKD) that connects the NTD and the PCP domain, and a C-terminal extension (CTE) that binds to and is stabilized by the putative substrate binding site of the PCPbeta domain. Combined with the reported nuclear localization of this protein, these results shed light on the self-processing mode and precise biological function of nsp1beta and thus offer a multitarget template for future drug discovery.