Project description:Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a secreted pleiotropic protein that is mainly produced by the liver. We have previously shown that LECT2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver diseases. Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury is a known animal model of fulminant hepatic failure. Here we found that this hepatic injury was alleviated in LECT2-deficient mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, which mediate this hepatitis, had significantly decreased in these mice, with the decrease in IFN-γ production notably greater than that in TNF-α. We therefore analyzed IFN-γ-producing cells in liver mononuclear cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed significantly reduced IFN-γ production in hepatic NK and NKT cells in LECT2-deficient mice compared with in wild-type mice. We also demonstrated a decrease in IFN-γ production in LECT2-deficient mice after systemic administration of recombinant IL-12, which is known to induce IFN-γ in NK and NKT cells. These results indicate that a decrease of IFN-γ production in NK and NKT cells was involved in the alleviation of LPS/d-GalN-induced liver injury in LECT2-deficient mice.
Project description:Acute hepatic injury caused by inflammatory liver disease is associated with high mortality. This study examined the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic injury in wild type and Cav-1-null (Cav-1-/- ) mice. Hepatic Cav-1 expression was induced post-LPS/GalN treatment in wild-type mice. LPS/GalN-treated Cav-1-/- mice showed reduced lethality and markedly attenuated liver damage, neutrophil infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis as compared to wild-type mice. Cav-1 deletion significantly reduced LPS/GalN-induced caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression. Additionally, Cav-1-/- mice showed suppressed expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 in Kupffer cells and reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in liver cells. Cav-1 deletion impeded LPS/GalN-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production and hindered nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Taken together, Cav-1 regulated the expression of mediators that govern LPS-induced inflammatory signalling in mouse liver. Thus, deletion of Cav-1 suppressed the inflammatory response mediated by the LPS-CD14-TLR4-NF-?b pathway and alleviated acute liver injury in mice.
Project description:Concanavalin A (Con A) causes severe TNF-alpha-mediated and IFN-gamma-mediated liver injury in mice. In addition to their other functions, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma both induce the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS). Using different models of liver injury, NO was found to either mediate or prevent liver damage. To further elucidate the relevance of NO for liver damage we investigated the role of iNOS-derived NO in the Con A model. We report that iNOS mRNA was induced in livers of Con A-treated mice within 2 hours, with iNOS protein becoming detectable in hepatocytes as well as in Kupffer cells within 4 hours. iNOS-/- mice were protected from liver damage after Con A treatment, as well as in another TNF-alpha-mediated model that is inducible by LPS in D-galactosamine-sensitized (GalN-sensitized) mice. iNOS-deficient mice were not protected after direct administration of recombinant TNF-alpha to GalN-treated mice. Accordingly, pretreatment of wild-type mice with a potent and specific inhibitor of iNOS significantly reduced transaminase release after Con A or GalN/LPS, but not after GalN/TNF-alpha treatment. Furthermore, the amount of plasma TNF-alpha and of intrahepatic TNF-alpha mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in iNOS-/- mice. Our results demonstrate that iNOS-derived NO regulates proinflammatory genes in vivo, thereby contributing to inflammatory liver injury in mice by stimulation of TNF-alpha production.
Project description:AIMS: Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress is associated with inflammation, and the cellular redox status can determine the sensitivity and the final outcome in response to inflammatory stimuli. To control the redox balance, mammalian cells contain a variety of oxidoreductases belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily. The large number of these enzymes suggests a complex mechanism of redox regulation in mammals, but the precise function of each family member awaits further investigations. RESULTS: We generated mice deficient in transmembrane thioredoxin-related protein (TMX), a transmembrane oxidoreductase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-(+)-galactosamine (GalN) to induce inflammatory liver injury, mutant mice were highly susceptible to the toxicants and developed severe liver damage. LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators was equivalent in both wild-type and TMX(-/-) mice, whereas neutralization of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? suppressed the toxic effects of LPS/GalN in the mutant mice. Liver transcriptional profiles revealed enhanced activation of the p53-signaling pathway in the TMX(-/-) mice after LPS/GalN treatment. Furthermore, TMX deficiency also caused increased sensitivity to thioacetamide, which exerts its hepatotoxicity through the generation of reactive oxygen species. INNOVATION: The present study is the first to address the role of the oxidoreductase TMX in inflammatory liver injury. The phenotype of mice deficient in TMX suggests a functional link between redox regulation in the ER and susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage. CONCLUSION: We conclude that TMX plays a major role in host defense under the type of inflammatory conditions associated with oxidative stress.
Project description:Analysis of mononuclear cells in the adult mouse liver revealed that B cells represent as much as half of the intrahepatic lymphocyte population. Intrahepatic B cells (IHB cells) are phenotypically similar to splenic B2 cells but express lower levels of CD23 and CD21 and higher levels of CD5. IHB cells proliferate as well as splenic B cells in response to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation in vitro. VDJ gene rearrangements in IHB cells contain insertions of N,P region nucleotides characteristic of B cells maturing in the adult bone marrow rather than in the fetal liver. To evaluate whether B cells can have an impact on liver pathology, we compared CCl4-induced fibrosis development in B cell-deficient and wild-type mice. CCl4 caused similar acute liver injury in mutant and wild-type mice. However, following 6 weeks of CCl4 treatment, histochemical analyses showed markedly reduced collagen deposition in B cell-deficient as compared with wild-type mice. By analyzing mice that have normal numbers of B cells but lack either T cells or immunoglobulin in the serum, we established that B cells have an impact on fibrosis in an antibody- and T cell-independent manner.
Project description:Formyl peptide-receptor 1 and 2 (FPR1 and FPR2) in mice were identified as receptors with contrary affinity for the PAMP fMLF. Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine is either part of the bacterial membrane and is secreted by the mitochondria of eukaryotic ceslls during apoptosis. Furthermore FPR1 and 2 are described as highly relevant factors for the chemotaxis of immune cells. Their role during the acute liver injury has not been investigated yet.Constitutive knockout mice for FPR1 (mFPR1-/-), FPR2 (mFPR2-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were challenged with LPS i.p. for 3 h and 6 h. Liver and serum were sampled for further analysis.Liver transaminases were elevated in all mice 3 h and 6 h post LPS stimulation. Gene expression analysis displayed a reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and CXCL1 after 3 h in the mFPR1-/- compared to wild type and mFPR2-/- mice. After 6 h, IL-6, TNF-? and CXCL1 were significantly higher in mice lacking mFPR1 or 2. Consistent to these findings the numbers of CD11b+ and Ly6G+ immune cells were altered in the livers. The analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 revealed time and genotype specific changes in theirs gene expression. Additionally, the liver in mFPR1- and mFPR2-deficient mice seem to be more susceptible to apoptosis by showing a significant higher number of TUNEL+-cells in the liver than WT-mice and displayed less Ki67-positive nuclei in the liver.The results suggest a prominent role of FPRs in the regulation of the hepatic inflammatory response after LPS induced liver injury. Deletion of mFPR1 or mFPR2 leads to deregulation of the inflammatory response compared to WT mice, associated with more severe liver injury represented by higher levels of transaminases, apoptotic cells and a reduced regenerative capacity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: p8 is a DNA-binding protein induced in many tissues in response to LPS treatment. Hence, p8 could be a mediator of LPS-associated effects or, on the contrary, p8 expression may be part of the protective mechanism of the tissues in response to LPS. Finally, p8 expression in response to LPS could also be a simple epiphenomenon. METHODS: To investigate the role of p8 in vivo, we generated p8-deficient mice by gene targeting. Because p8 is a stress protein, we analyzed the response of p8-/- mice to a systemic stress induced by LPS injection. Liver was chosen as model organ to monitor alterations in gene expression. RESULTS: LPS resulted in higher serum TNF-alpha concentration and higher mortality rate in p8-deficient mice than in wild-type. Also, liver and pancreas, but not lung, from p8-/- mice showed increased amounts of MPO and HPO. To gain insight into the molecular bases of such susceptibility, we used high density DNA microarrays consisting of ~6000 genes and ESTs to compare gene regulation in response to LPS in p8+/+ and p8-/- livers. In wild-type, 105 genes and 73 ESTs were up-regulated and 232 genes and 138 ESTs down-regulated. By contrast, 212 genes and 125 ESTs were found up-regulated and 90 genes and 85 ESTs down regulated in p8-/- mice. Among them, only 93 (51 induced and 42 repressed) corresponded to the wild-type pattern, demonstrating that p8 deficiency hinders the normal response to LPS, which may account for the increased sensitivity of p8-/-mice to the endotoxin. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of genes showing abnormal regulation after LPS suggests that p8 is an important regulatory factor involved in many cellular defence pathways.
Project description:Although miR-150 is implicated in the regulation of immune cell differentiation and activation, it remains unknown whether miR-150 is involved in liver biology and disease. This study was performed to explore the potential role of miR-150 in LPS/D-GalN and Fas-induced liver injuries by using wild type and miR-150 knockout (KO) mice. Whereas knockout of miR-150 did not significantly alter LPS/D-GalN-induced animal death and liver injury, it protected against Fas-induced liver injury and mortality. The Jo2-induced increase in serum transaminases, apoptotic hepatocytes, PARP cleavage, as well as caspase-3/7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities were significantly attenuated in miR-150 KO mice. The liver tissues from Jo2-treated miR-150 KO mice expressed higher levels of Akt1, Akt2, total Akt, as well as p-Akt(Ser473) compared to the wild type livers. Pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor V reversed Jo2-induced liver injury in miR-150 KO mice. The primary hepatocytes isolated from miR-150 KO mice also showed protection against Fas-induced apoptosis in vitro (characterized by less prominent PARP cleavage, less nuclear fragmentation and less caspase activation) in comparison to hepatocytes from wild type mice. Luciferase reporter assays in hepatocytes transfected with the Akt1 or Akt2 3'-UTR reporter constructs (with or without mutation of miR-150 binding site) established Akt1 and Akt2 as direct targets of miR-150. Tail vein injection of lentiviral particles containing pre-miR-150 enhanced Jo2-induced liver injury in miR-150 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that miR-150 deficiency prevents Fas-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury through regulation of the Akt pathway.
Project description:Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)? (cPLA(2)?) is a rate-limiting key enzyme controlling the release of arachidonic acid (AA) substrate for the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. This study was designed to explore the role of hepatocyte cPLA(2)? in Fas-mediated liver injury, in vivo.Transgenic mice with targeted expression of cPLA(2)? under control of the albumin-promoter enhancer and wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with anti-Fas antibody Jo2 or lipopolysaccharide plus d-galactosamine and monitored for liver injury and survival at various time points.The cPLA(2)? Tg mice resist Fas-induced liver failure, as reflected by the lower serum transaminase levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes, reduced caspase activation, and reduced PARP cleavage when compared to the matched wild type mice. Inhibition of cPLA(2)? by its pharmacological inhibitor, pyrrolidine, enhanced Jo2-induced liver injury in both cPLA(2)? Tg and wild type mice. Hepatic overexpression of cPLA(2)? increases the expression of EGFR in the liver and the EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, exacerbated Jo2-mediated liver injury. The cPLA(2)? transgenic mice develop more prominent liver tissue damage than wild-type mice after LPS/d-galactosamine injection.Hepatocyte cPLA(2)? protects against Fas-induced liver injury and this effect is mediated at least in part through the upregulation of EGFR.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) has been implicated in a potent anti-inflammatory activity. However, no information is available on whether PPAR? can affect signal transducers and activator of transcription proteins (STATs) in acute liver damage. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the in vivo role of PPAR? in elevating STATs as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute hepatic inflammatory injury. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type (WT) mice, we demonstrate that the deletion of PPAR? aggravates LPS-mediated liver injury through activating STAT1 and NF-?B-p65 accompanied by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the activities of key anti-oxidant enzymes and mitochondrial complexes were significantly decreased while lipid peroxidation and protein nitration were elevated in LPS-exposed Ppara-null mice compared to WT. These results indicate that PPAR? is important in preventing LPS-induced acute liver damage by regulating STAT1 inflammatory signaling pathways and oxidative/nitrosative stress.