Project description:During embryogenesis, the liver is the site of hepatogenesis and hematopoiesis and contains many cell lineages derived from the endoderm and mesoderm. However, the characteristics and developmental programs of many of these cell lineages remain unclear, especially in humans. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of whole human and mouse fetal livers throughout development. We identified four cell lineage families of endoderm-derived, erythroid, non-erythroid hematopoietic, and mesoderm-derived non-hematopoietic cells, and defined the developmental pathways of the major cell lineage families. In both humans and mice, we identified novel markers of hepatic lineages and an ID3<sup>+</sup> subpopulation of hepatoblasts as well as verified that hepatoblast differentiation follows the "default-directed" model. Additionally, we found that human but not mouse fetal hepatocytes display heterogeneity associated with expression of metabolism-related genes. We described the developmental process of erythroid progenitor cells during human and mouse hematopoiesis. Moreover, despite the general conservation of cell differentiation programs between species, we observed different cell lineage compositions during hematopoiesis in the human and mouse fetal livers. Taken together, these results reveal the dynamic cell landscape of fetal liver development and illustrate the similarities and differences in liver development between species, providing an extensive resource for inducing various liver cell lineages in vitro.
Project description:Analyses of gene expression by RNA-Seq in mouse E14.5 fetal liver burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) cells untreated or treated by dexamethasone (DEX) with or without PPAR? agonist GW7647. RNA-Seq was performed on enriched populations of mouse BFU-E isolated from E14.5 fetal liver, as well as BFU-E enriched cells treated with Dex ± GW7647.
Project description:The serine threonine kinase Stk40 has been shown to involve in mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, pulmonary maturation and adipocyte differentiation. Here we report that targeted deletion of Stk40 leads to fetal liver hypoplasia and anemia in the mouse embryo. The reduction of erythrocytes in the fetal liver is accompanied by increased apoptosis and compromised erythroid maturation. Stk40-/- fetal liver cells have significantly reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) capable of erythroid differentiation, including burst forming unit-erythroid, CFU-erythroid (CFU-E), and CFU-granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte and macrophage, but not CFU-granulocyte/macrophages. Purified Stk40-/- megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors produce substantially fewer CFU-E colonies compared to control cells. Moreover, Stk40-/- fetal liver erythroblasts fail to form normal erythroblastic islands in association with wild type or Stk40-/- macrophages, indicating an intrinsic defect of Stk40-/- erythroblasts. Furthermore, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell pool is reduced in Stk40-/- fetal livers but still retains the multi-lineage reconstitution capacity. Finally, comparison of microarray data between wild type and Stk40-/- E14.5 fetal liver cells reveals a potential role of aberrantly activated TNF-? signaling in Stk40 depletion induced dyserythropoiesis with a concomitant increase in cleaved caspase-3 and decrease in Gata1 proteins. Altogether, the identification of Stk40 as a regulator for fetal erythroid maturation and survival provides new clues to the molecular regulation of erythropoiesis and related diseases.
Project description:We used scRNAseq to profile CD71/CD24low fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells isolated by 2 distinct methods: FACS and immunomagnetic isolation. Cells from both isolation methods were hashtagged using Biolegend mouse hashtag antibodies and library prepped together on the 10X chromium platform with the 3'RNA v3 kit. We also performed CITE-seq to profile proteogenomic expression of CD117 and CD71 on lineage-depleted mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells. CITE-seq was performed through a separate library prep on the 10X chromium platform with the 3'RNAv3 kit. Overall design: Cell hashing of scRNAseq profiling of 2 distinct methods of mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitor isolation, and CITE-seq for CD117 and CD71 protein expression on lineage-depleted mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells.
Project description:Blood is a tissue with a high cell turnover rate that is constantly being replenished by bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) seeded during fetal ontogeny from the liver. Here we show that the long-term (LT) reconstituting subset of cKit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1(+)Flk2(-) HSCs is CD150(+). HSCs sourced from the fetal liver show LT, multilineage engraftment from E14.5 onward, and the CD150 cell surface molecule can readily substitute Thy1.1 as a positive marker of LT-HSCs in this tissue. From both fetal liver and adult bone marrow, cKit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1(+)Flk2(-) CD150(+) cells exhibit robust LT competitive engraftment, self-renewal, multilineage differentiation capacity, and an accessible chromatin configuration consistent with high expression of erythroid/megakaryoid genes in purified cell subsets. Our data show that, with appropriate combinations of cell surface markers, stem cells can be accurately isolated to high purity and characterized. This is important for the clarification of lineage relationships and the identification of bona fide regulators of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation both in normal and neoplastic tissues.
Project description:In recent years, highly detailed characterization of adult bone marrow (BM) myeloid progenitors has been achieved and, as a result, the impact of somatic defects on different hematopoietic lineage fate decisions can be precisely determined. Fetal liver (FL) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are poorly characterized in comparison, potentially hindering the study of the impact of genetic alterations on midgestation hematopoiesis. Numerous disorders, for example infant acute leukemias, have in utero origins and their study would therefore benefit from the ability to isolate highly purified progenitor subsets. We previously demonstrated that a Runx1 distal promoter (P1)-GFP::proximal promoter (P2)-hCD4 dual-reporter mouse (Mus musculus) model can be used to identify adult BM progenitor subsets with distinct lineage preferences. In this study, we undertook the characterization of the expression of Runx1-P1-GFP and P2-hCD4 in FL. Expression of P2-hCD4 in the FL immunophenotypic Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor (MEP) and Common Myeloid Progenitor (CMP) compartments corresponded to increased granulocytic/monocytic/megakaryocytic and decreased erythroid specification. Moreover, Runx1-P2-hCD4 expression correlated with several endogenous cell surface markers' expression, including CD31 and CD45, providing a new strategy for prospective identification of highly purified fetal myeloid progenitors in transgenic mouse models. We utilized this methodology to compare the impact of the deletion of either total RUNX1 or RUNX1C alone and to determine the fetal HPCs lineages most substantially affected. This new prospective identification of FL progenitors therefore raises the prospect of identifying the underlying gene networks responsible with greater precision than previously possible.
Project description:Expression patterns in the globin gene cluster are subject to developmental regulation in vivo. While the gamma(A) and gamma(G) genes are expressed in fetal liver, both are silenced in adult erythrocytes. In order to decipher the role of DNA methylation in this process, we generated a YAC transgenic mouse system that allowed us to control gamma(A) methylation during development. DNA methylation causes a 20-fold repression of gamma(A) both in non-erythroid and adult erythroid cells. In erythroid cells this modification works as a dominant mechanism to repress gamma gene expression, probably through changes in histone acetylation that prevent the binding of erythroid transcription factors to the promoter. These studies demonstrate that DNA methylation serves as an elegant in vivo fine-tuning device for selecting appropriate genes in the globin locus. In addition, our findings provide a mechanism for understanding the high levels of gamma-globin transcription seen in patients with Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin, and help explain why 5azaC and butyrate compounds stimulate gamma-globin expression in patients with beta-hemoglobinopathies.
Project description:We linked a 3.3-kilobase fragment containing the entire A gamma-globin gene together with 1.3 kilobases of 5' flanking and 0.37 kilobase of 3' flanking DNA to a 2.5-kilobase fragment containing four of the developmentally stable hypersensitive sites normally located in the 5' region of the human beta-globin locus. This construct was injected into fertilized mouse eggs, and its expression was analyzed in the primitive and definitive erythroid cells, as well as the brain of 14-day embryos. All six transgenic individuals that contained intact copies of the construct expressed the transgene in an erythroid-specific fashion. Expression was observed in both primitive and definitive erythroid cells. This is in marked contrast to previous transgenic mice experiments using the same A gamma-globin gene fragment in isolation, where expression was restricted to primitive erythroid cells. Our results show that the region containing the developmentally stable globin locus hypersensitive sites changes the developmental stage specificity of a human fetal globin gene in transgenic mice. These observations imply that sequences additional to those used here are involved in the developmental control of fetal globin gene expression in vivo. The ability to express fetal globin in adult erythroid cells allows one to consider using fetal globin genes for gene therapy of sickle cell disease.
Project description:The S1 and S3 erythroid developmental subsets were isolated using flow cytometry and the cell surface markers CD71 and Ter119 as described by Pop et. al. 2010 (PMID: 20877475) Expression profiles for S1 and S3 subsets were generated using Affymetrix GeneChips. Results were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed during erythropoiesis. Single cell suspensions were prepared by mechanically dissociating whole fetal livers obtained from E12.5 to E13.5 Balb/C mouse embryos. Cells were stained for CD71, Ter119, and a cocktail containing lineage-specific antibodies. S1 and S3 erythroid developmental subsets were identified and isolated using flow cytometric sorting as described by Pop et. al. 2010 (PMID: 20877475). S1 and S3 subsets were isolated on 3 seperate days to generate total RNA (biological replicates). 20 ng of total RNA from each biological replicate was converted to cDNA, linearly amplified and biotinylated using Ovation reagents (Nugen, San Carlos, CA). Samples were hybridized to Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Microarray suite 5 (MAS5) processed sample data were normalized to the average of 18SRNA (AFFX-18SRNAMur/X00686_M_at), GAPDH (AFFX-GapdhMur/M32599_3_at) and β-actin (1419734_at) expression values. These gene expression profiles were performed as part of the manuscript by Shearstone et. al. Global DNA Demethylation During Erythropoiesis In Vivo
Project description:The rapid growth of the embryo places severe demands on the ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to cells. To meet this need, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand in the fetal liver microenvironment such that by E14.5, erythropoiesis predominates in the fetal liver. In this report we show that the BMP4/Smad5 dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway plays a key role in the expansion of erythroid progenitors in the fetal liver. These data show that the fetal liver contains two populations of erythroid progenitors. One population resembles the steady state erythroid progenitors found in the adult bone marrow. While the second population exhibits the properties of stress erythroid progenitors found in adult spleen. Here we demonstrate that defects in BMP4/Smad5 signaling preferentially affect the expansion of the stress erythroid progenitors in the fetal liver leading to fetal anemia. These data suggest that steady state erythropoiesis is unable to generate sufficient erythrocytes to maintain the rapid growth of the embryo leading to the induction of the BMP4 dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway. These observations underscore the similarities between fetal erythropoiesis and stress erythropoiesis.