Project description:MicroRNA expression profiling of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) treated with either vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) only or in combination with the natural angiogenesis inhibitor pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF). Originally we were interested in the microRNA-mediated regulation of angiogenesis by the endogenous anti-angiogenic PEDF. To identify the microRNAs involved in PEDF signaling in activated endothelial cells, we compared the levels of microRNAs in non-treated microvascular endothelial cells, cells treated with VEGF, and cells treated with a combination of VEGF and PEDF. After treatment, total RNA content was isolated and sent for analysis to LC Sciences, LLC. They performed expression profiling and completed statistical analysis, based on which we confirmed the regulation of one of the microRNAs, mir-27b. In the following experiments, we identified the targets of mir-27b relevant for angiogenesis and confirmed our findings in zebrafish and mouse models. The manuscript describes the key role of mir-27b in determination of the endothelial tip cell fate and venous differentiation by regulating Notch ligand Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Sprouty homologue 2 (Spry2). Three-condition experiment: untreated (control) HMVECs vs. VEGF-treated HMVECs vs. PEDF/VEGF-treated HMVECs.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy of myo-inositol (MI) pretreatment in OHSS.In this experimental OHSS rat model, 42 immature Wistar albino female rats were divided into 6 groups: (1) the control group, (2) the ovarian stimulation group, (3) the OHSS group, (4) the OHSS + Metformin group, (5) OHSS + MI group, (6) OHSS + Metformin + MI group. OHSS was established after treatment with metformin and myo-inositol for 14 days, in the meanwhile the treatment of metformin and myo-inositol was also continued. All animals were killed 48 h after hCG administration and were compared in terms of vascular permeability, ovarian weight and diameter, ovarian VEGF, COX-2 and PEDF expression (immunohistochemistry), serum PEDF and estradiol (E2) levels.Vascular permeability, VEGF and COX-2 expressions were reduced in animals treated with MI and/or metformin. While PEDF expression was increased in the groups taking metformin, there was no difference in PEDF expression in the group taking MI and OHSS group. There was no significant difference in serum PEDF levels between groups. Blood E2 levels were decreased in groups treated with MI or metformin compared to the OHSS group.Our data demonstrate that myo-inositol is effective in preventing OHSS, similar to metformin. Although the two drugs are thought to act through distinct mechanisms, there is no apparent benefit to co-treatment with both drugs in an animal model of OHSS. Administration of myo-inositol prior to IVF treatment may favor the control of ovulation induction. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action and further support our findings.
Project description:Arachidonic acid is metabolized by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and has an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate whether 12-LOX plays a role in retinal neovascularization (NV).Experiments were performed using retinas from a murine model of oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy (OIR) that was treated with and without the LOX pathway inhibitor, baicalein, or lacking 12-LOX. We also analyzed vitreous samples from patients with and without proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of 12-LOX, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the amounts of HETEs in the murine retina and human vitreous samples. The effects of 12-HETE on VEGF and PEDF expression were evaluated in Müller cells (rMCs), primary mouse retinal pigment epithelial cells, and astrocytes.Retinal NV during OIR was associated with increased 12-LOX expression and 12-, 15-, and 5-HETE production. The amounts of HETEs also were significantly higher in the vitreous of diabetic patients with PDR. Retinal NV was markedly abrogated in mice treated with baicalein or mice lacking 12-LOX. This was associated with decreased VEGF expression and restoration of PEDF levels. PEDF expression was reduced in 12-HETE-treated rMCs, astrocytes, and the retinal pigment epithelium. Only rMCs and astrocytes showed increased VEGF expression by 12-HETE.12-LOX and its product HETE are important regulators of retinal NV through modulation of VEGF and PEDF expression and could provide a new therapeutic target to prevent and treat ischemic retinopathy.
Project description:The rapidly expanding feto-placental vasculature needs tight control by paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. Here, we focused on paracrine influence by trophoblast, the placental epithelium. We aimed to identify differences in regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis in early versus late pregnancy. To this end, the effect of conditioned media (CM) from early and late pregnancy human trophoblast was tested on network formation, migration and proliferation of human feto-placental endothelial cells. Only CM of late pregnancy trophoblast reduced network formation and migration. Screening of trophoblast transcriptome for anti-angiogenic candidates identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) with higher expression and protein secretion in late pregnancy trophoblast. Addition of a PEDF-neutralizing antibody restored the anti-angiogenic effect of CM from late pregnancy trophoblast. Notably, human recombinant PEDF reduced network formation only in combination with VEGF. Also in the CAM assay, the combination of PEDF with VEGF reduced branching of vessels below control levels. Analysis of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK, two key players in VEGF-induced proliferation and migration, revealed that PEDF altered VEGF signaling, while PEDF alone did not affect phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK. These data suggest that the trophoblast-derived anti-angiogenic molecule PEDF is involved in restricting growth and expansion of the feto-placental endothelium predominantly in late pregnancy and targets to modulate the intracellular effect of VEGF.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects of oxygen fluctuations on pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/PEDF ratios in a relevant rat model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS:The expression of retinal PEDF mRNA and of VEGF and PEDF protein were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at different postnatal day ages for rat pups raised in room air (RA) or in a rat model mimicking ROP. Statistical outcomes were determined with factorial analyses of variance. Mean VEGF and PEDF protein levels were determined at different ages for rats in the ROP model and for RA-raised rats, and the ratio of VEGF/PEDF protein versus age was plotted. At postnatal day (P) 14, inner retinal plexus vascularization had extended to the ora serrata in pups raised in RA. In the ROP model, avascular retina persisted at P14 and intravitreous neovascularization developed at P18. Therefore, VEGF and PEDF expression was determined in the ROP model and in RA-raised rat pups at P14 and P18. RESULTS:Older age was associated with increased PEDF mRNA (p<0.001), PEDF protein (p=0.005), and VEGF protein (p=0.005), and VEGF protein (p<0.0001). Exposure to fluctuations of oxygen in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model compared to RA was associated with increased PEDF mRNA (p=0.0185), PEDF protein (p<0.0001), or VEGF protein (p<0.0001). The VEGF/PEDF ratio favored angiogenic inhibition (<1.0) before but not on P14, when avascular retina persisted in the ROP model but not in RA. The VEGF/PEDF ratio favored angiogenesis (>1.0) at P14 and P 18 when intravitreous neovascularization occurred in the ROP model. CONCLUSIONS:Increased expression levels of VEGF and PEDF are associated with older postnatal day age or with exposure to fluctuations in oxygen in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model compared to RA. PEDF protein more closely associates with avascular retinal features and neovascularization than does VEGF protein or the VEGF/PEDF in the ROP model. Although PEDF has been proposed as a potential treatment in ROP, interventional studies using PEDF in an ROP model to potentially reduce intravitreous neovascularization are required to determine timing, efficacy, and dose of PEDF.
Project description:Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a benign tumor that is formed by aberrant angiogenesis and that undergoes spontaneous regression over time. Propranolol, the first-line therapy for IH, inhibits angiogenesis by downregulating activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, which is hyperactivated in IH. However, this treatment is reportedly ineffective for 10% of tumors, and 19% of patients relapse after propranolol treatment. Both pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors regulate angiogenesis, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is the most effective endogenous anti-angiogenic factor. PEDF/VEGF ratio controls many angiogenic processes, but its role in IH and the relationship between this ratio and propranolol remain unknown. Results of the present study showed that the PEDF/VEGF ratio increased during the involuting phase of IH compared with the proliferating phase. Similarly, in hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemEC), which were isolated with magnetic beads, increasing the PEDF/VEGF ratio inhibited proliferation, migration, and tube formation and promoted apoptosis. Mechanistically, the VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) and PEDF receptor (laminin receptor, LR) were highly expressed in both IH tissues and HemEC, and PEDF inhibited HemEC function by binding to LR. Interestingly, we found that propranolol increased the PEDF/VEGF ratio but did so by lowering VEGF expression rather than by upregulating PEDF as expected. Furthermore, the combination of PEDF and propranolol had a more suppressive effect on HemEC. Consequently, our results suggested that the PEDF/VEGF ratio played a pivotal role in the spontaneous regression of IH and that the combination of PEDF and propranolol might be a promising treatment strategy for propranolol-resistant IH.
Project description:The demise of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is characteristic of diseases of the retina such as glaucoma and diabetic or ischemic retinopathies. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional secreted protein that mediates neuroprotection and inhibition of angiogenesis in the retina. We have studied expression and regulation of two of several receptors for PEDF, patatin-like phospholipase 2 gene product/PEDF-R and laminin receptor (LR), in serum-starved RGC under normoxia and hypoxia and investigated their involvement in the survival of retinal neuronal cells. We show that PEDF-R and LR are co-expressed in RGC and R28 retinal precursor cells. Expression of both receptors was enhanced in the presence of complex secretions from retinal glial (Müller) cells and upregulated by VEGF and under hypoxic conditions. PEDF-R- and LR-knocked-down cells demonstrated a markedly attenuated expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) and neuroprotective mediators (PEDF, VEGF, BDNF) suggesting that both PEDF-R and LR mediate pro-survival effects of PEDF on RGC. While this study does not provide evidence for a differential survival-promoting influence of either PEDF-R or LR, it nevertheless highlights the importance of both PEDF receptors for the viability of retinal neurons.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B possesses the capacity of promoting injured peripheral nerve regeneration and restore their sensory and trophic functions. However, the contribution and mechanism of VEGF-B in diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and role of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal neuropathy by using type 1 diabetic mice and cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Hyperglycemia attenuated the endogenous expression of VEGF-B in regenerated diabetic corneal epithelium, but not that of VEGF receptors in diabetic TG neurons and axons. Exogenous VEGF-B promoted diabetic corneal nerve fiber regeneration through the reactivation of PI-3K/Akt-GSK3?-mTOR signaling and the attenuation of neuronal mitochondria dysfunction via the VEGF receptor-1 and neuropilin-1. Moreover, VEGF-B improved corneal sensation and epithelial regeneration in both normal and diabetic mice, accompanied with the elevated corneal content of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF). PEDF blockade partially abolished trophic function of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal re-innervation. In conclusion, hyperglycemia suppressed endogenous VEGF-B expression in regenerated corneal epithelium of diabetic mice, while exogenous VEGF-B promoted recovery of corneal innervations and trophic functions through reactivating PI-3K/Akt-GSK-3?-mTOR signaling, attenuating neuronal oxidative stress and elevating PEDF expression.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of expression of phosphorylated methyl-CpG binding protein 2-Ser421 (MeCP2-S421) and VEGF in the membranes of patients with PDR. We examined the expression of phospho-MeCP2-S80, S421, VEGF and PEDF in surgically excised PDR membranes from 33 patients with diabetes, and idiopathic epiretinal membranes from 11 patients without diabetes, using immunohistochemistry and western blot. The colocalization of MeCP2-S421 with VEGF, PEDF, CD31, GFAP and ?SMA was revealed by fluorescent double labeling. The effect of CoCl2 and knock down MeCP2 using specific siRNA on the expression of MeCP2 and VEGF were analyzed in HUCAC cells by Western blot. We found that phospho-MeCP2-S421 was significantly increased in the membranes from the patients with PDR compared with the specimens from patients without diabetes (P?<?0.01). The expression of phospho-MeCP2-S421 was much stronger than that of phospho-MeCP2-S80 in the PDR membranes. Double labeling showed that the high phospho-MeCP2-S421 expression was associated with strong expression of VEGF, but not PEDF. Further, phospho-MeCP2-S421 and VEGF were increased by the stimulation of CoCl2 and knock down MeCP2 inhibited the expression of VEGF. Our result suggests that phospho-MeCP2-S421 might involve in the pathogenesis of PDR.