Project description:Lungs of the rodent species, the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) and the Nigerian mole rat (Cryptomys foxi) were investigated. Significant morphometric differences exist between the two species. The volume of the lung per unit body mass was 2.7 times larger; the respiratory surface area 3.4 times greater; the volume of the pulmonary capillary blood 2 times more; the harmonic mean thickness of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier (?ht) ~29% thinner and; the total pulmonary morphometric diffusing capacity (DLo2) for O2 2.3 times more in C. foxi. C. gambianus occupies open burrows that are ventilated with air while C. foxi lives in closed burrows. The less morphometrically specialized lungs of C. gambianus may be attributed to its much larger body mass (~6 times more) and possibly lower metabolic rate and its semifossorial life whereas the 'superior' lungs of C. foxi may largely be ascribed to the subterranean hypoxic and hypercapnic environment it occupies. Compared to other rodents species that have been investigated hitherto, the ?ht was mostly smaller in the lungs of the subterranean species and C. foxi has the highest mass-specific DLo2. The fossorial- and the subterranean rodents have acquired various pulmonary structural specializations that relate to habitats occupied.
Project description:Different cDNA clones encoding a rat homeobox gene and the mouse homologue OG-12 were cloned from adult rat brain and mouse embryo mRNA, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of the proteins belong to the paired-related subfamily of homeodomain proteins (Prx homeodomains). Hence, the gene was named Prx3 and the mouse and rat genes are indicated as mPrx3 and rPrx3, respectively. In the mouse as well as in the rat, the predicted Prx3 proteins share the homeodomain but have three different N termini, a 12-aa residue variation in the C terminus, and contain a 14-aa residue motif common to a subset of homeodomain proteins, termed the "aristaless domain." Genetic mapping of Prx3 in the mouse placed this gene on chromosome 3. In situ hybridization on whole mount 12.5-day-old mouse embryos and sections of rat embryos at 14.5 and 16.5 days postcoitum revealed marked neural expression in discrete regions in the lateral and medial geniculate complex, superior and inferior colliculus, the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus, pontine reticular formation, and inferior olive. In rat and mouse embryos, nonneuronal structures around the oral cavity and in hip and shoulder regions also expressed the Prx3 gene. In the adult rat brain, Prx3 gene expression was restricted to thalamic, tectal, and brainstem structures that include relay nuclei of the visual and auditory systems as well as other ascending systems conveying somatosensory information. Prx3 may have a role in specifying neural systems involved in processing somatosensory information, as well as in face and body structure formation.
Project description:We performed RNA-seq on six samples of P20 Sprague Dawley rat superior colliculus, three control rats that underwent eye opening at P14 until P20 and three deprived rats which had their eyes glued closed from P14 until P20. Each sample was created from two pooled colliculi. RNA-seq of the superior colliculus with and without long term light deprivation.
2015-09-09 | E-GEOD-72787 | ArrayExpress
Project description:Transcriptomes of Coregonus artedi complex from Lake Superior
Project description:We have purified human thimet oligopeptidase to homogeneity from erythrocytes, and compared it with the enzyme from rat testis and chicken liver. An antiserum raised against rat thimet oligopeptidase also recognized the human and chicken enzymes, suggesting that the structure of the enzyme has been strongly conserved in evolution. Consistent with this, the properties of the human enzyme were very similar to those for the other species. Thus human thimet oligopeptidase also is a thiol-dependent metallo-oligopeptidase with M(r) about 75,000. Specificity for cleavage of a number of peptides was indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme, but Ki values for the four potent reversible inhibitors tested were lower. In discussing the results, we consider the determinants of the complex substrate specificity of thimet oligopeptidase. We question whether substrates containing more than 17 amino acid residues are cleaved, as has been suggested. We also point out that the favourable location of a proline residue and a free C-terminus in the substrate may be as important as the hydrophobic residues in the P2, P1 and P3' positions that have been emphasized in the past.
Project description:The human BTG1 protein is thought to be a potential tumour suppressor because its overexpression inhibits NIH 3T3 cell proliferation. However, little is known about how BTG1 exerts its anti-proliferative activity. In this study, we used the yeast 'two-hybrid' system to screen for interacting protein partners and identified human carbon catabolite repressor protein (CCR4)-associative factor 1 (hCAF-1), a homologue of mouse CAF-1 (mCAF-1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yCAF-1/POP2. In vitro the hCAF-1/BTG1 complex formation was dependent on the phosphorylation of a putative p34cdc2 kinase site on BTG1 (Ser-159). In yeast, the Ala-159 mutant did not interact with hCAF-1. In addition, phosphorylation of Ser-159 in vitro showed specificity for the cell cycle kinases p34CDK2/cyclin E and p34CDK2/cyclin A, but not for p34CDK4/cyclin D1 or p34cdc2/cyclin B. Cell synchrony experiments with primary cultures of rat aortic smooth-muscle cells (RSMCs) demonstrated that message and protein levels of rat CAF-1 (rCAF-1) were up-regulated under conditions of cell contact, as previously reported for BTG1 [Wilcox, Scott, Subramanian, Ross, Adams-Burton, Stoltenborg and Corjay (1995) Circulation 92, I34-I35]. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that rCAF-1 localizes to the nucleus of contact-inhibited RSMCs, where it was physically associated with BTG1, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation with anti-hCAF-1 antisera. Overexpression of hCAF-1 in NIH 3T3 and osteosarcoma (U-2-OS) cells was itself anti-proliferative with colony formation reduced by 67% and 90% respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that formation of the hCAF-1/BTG1 complex is driven by phosphorylation at BTG1 (Ser-159) and implicates this complex in the signalling events of cell division that lead to changes in cellular proliferation associated with cell-cell contact.