Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE30864: Gene expression of polyoma middle T antigen induced mammary tumors [AKXD x PyMT] GSE30865: Gene expression of polyoma middle T antigen induced mammary tumors [NZB x PyMT] GSE31223: Gene expression of polyoma middle T antigen induced mammary tumors [RNA_Seq : MOLF x PyMT] Refer to individual Series
Project description:We have adapted the avian leukosis virus RCAS (replication-competent avian sarcoma-leukosis virus LTR splice acceptor)-mediated somatic gene transfer technique to introduce oncogenes into mammary cells in mice transgenic for the avian subgroup A receptor gene, tva, under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. Intraductal instillation of an RCAS vector carrying the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) gene (RCAS-PyMT) induced multiple, oligoclonal tumors within 3 weeks in infected mammary glands of MMTV-tva transgenic mice. The rapid appearance of these tumors from a relatively small pool of infected cells (estimated to be approximately 2 x 10(3) cells per gland by infection with RCAS carrying a GFP gene; RCAS-GFP) was accompanied by a high fraction of cells positive for Ki67, Cyclin D1, and c-Myc, implying strong proliferation competence. Furthermore, the tumors displayed greater cellular heterogeneity than did tumors arising in MMTV-PyMT mice, suggesting that RCAS-PyMT transforms a relatively immature cell type. Infection of mice transgenic for both MMTV-Wnt-1 and MMTV-tva with RCAS virus carrying an activated Neu oncogene dramatically enhanced tumor formation over what is observed in uninfected bitransgenic animals. We conclude that infection of mammary glands with retrovirus vectors is an efficient means to screen candidate oncogenes for their capacity to initiate or promote mammary carcinogenesis in the mouse.
Project description:The branching of complex N-glycans attached to growth factor receptors promotes tumor progression by prolonging growth factor signaling. The addition of the bisecting GlcNAc to complex N-glycans by Mgat3 has varying effects on cell adhesion, cell migration, and hepatoma formation. Here, we show that Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing Mgat3 and the polyoma middle T (PyMT) antigen have reduced cell proliferation and growth factor signaling dependent on a galectin lattice. The Mgat3 gene is not expressed in virgin mammary gland but is upregulated during lactation and is expressed in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)/PyMT tumors. Mice lacking Mgat3 that cannot transfer the bisecting GlcNAc to N-glycans acquire PyMT-induced mammary tumors more rapidly and have an increased tumor burden, increased migration of tumor cells, and increased early metastasis to lung. Tumors and tumor-derived cells lacking Mgat3 exhibit enhanced signaling through the Ras pathway and reduced amounts of functionally glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan. Constitutive overexpression of an MMTV/Mgat3 transgene inhibits early mammary tumor development and tumor cell migration. Thus, the addition of the bisecting GlcNAc to complex N-glycans of mammary tumor cell glycoprotein receptors is a cell autonomous mechanism serving to retard tumor progression by reducing growth factor signaling.
Project description:Based largely on studies in xenograft models, lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been implicated in the progression of multiple types of human tumors, including breast cancer. Here we examine the role of Lcn2 in mammary tumorigenesis and lung metastasis using an in vivo molecular genetics approach. We crossed a well-characterized transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, the MMTV-PyMT (mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T antigen) mouse, with two independent gene-targeted Lcn2(-/-) mouse strains of the 129/Ola or C57BL/6 genetic background. The onset and progression of mammary tumor development and lung metastasis in the female progeny of these crosses were monitored over a 20-week period. Female Lcn2(-/-)MMTV-PyMT mice of the 129/Ola background (Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(129)) showed delayed onset of mammary tumors, and both Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(129) mice and Lcn2(-/-)MMTV-PyMT mice of the C57BL/6 background (Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(B6)) exhibited significant decreases in multiplicity and tumor burden (approximately 2- to 3-fold), as measured by total tumor weight and volume. At the molecular level, mammary tumors derived from Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(B6) females showed reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and a lack of high molecular weight MMP activity. However, although increased MMP-9 activity has been linked to tumor progression, neither Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(B6) nor Lcn2(-/-)PyMT(129) female mice showed a reduction in lung metastases compared to Lcn2(+/+)PyMT controls. Our results demonstrate, using an in vivo animal model approach, that Lcn2 is a potent inducer of mammary tumor growth but not a significant promoter of lung metastasis.
Project description:CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are pro-tumorigenic, pro-angiogenic and are associated with decreased survival rates in patients with cancer, including breast cancer. Non-specific models of macrophage ablation reduce the number of TAMs and limit the development of mammary tumors. However, the lack of specificity and side effects associated with these models compromise their reliability. We hypothesized that specific and controlled macrophage depletion would provide precise data on the effects of reducing TAM numbers on tumor development. In this study, the MacLow mouse model of doxycycline-inducible and selective CD68+ macrophage depletion was crossed with the murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyMT) mouse model of spontaneous ductal breast adenocarcinoma to generate the PyMT-MacLow line. In doxycycline-treated PyMT-MacLow mice, macrophage numbers were decreased in areas surrounding tumors by 43%. Reducing the number of macrophages by this level delayed tumor progression, generated less proliferative tumors, decreased the vascularization of carcinomas and down-regulated the expression of many pro-angiogenic genes. These results demonstrate that depleting CD68+ macrophages in an inducible and selective manner delays the development of mammary tumors and that the PyMT-MacLow model is a useful and unique tool for studying the role of TAMs in breast cancer.
Project description:Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3(-/-)/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3(-/-)/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ?20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer.
Project description:Molecular expression profiling of tumors initiated by transgenic overexpression of c-myc, c-neu, c-ha-ras, polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) or simian virus 40 T/t antigen (T-ag) targeted to the mouse mammary gland have identified both common and oncogene-specific events associated with tumor formation and progression. The tumors shared great similarities in their gene-expression profiles as compared with the normal mammary gland with an induction of cell-cycle regulators, metabolic regulators, zinc finger proteins, and protein tyrosine phosphatases, along with the suppression of some protein tyrosine kinases. Selection and hierarchical clustering of the most variant genes, however, resulted in separating the mouse models into three groups with distinct oncogene-specific patterns of gene expression. Such an identification of targets specified by particular oncogenes may facilitate development of lesion-specific therapeutics and preclinical testing. Moreover, similarities in gene expression between human breast cancers and the mouse models have been identified, thus providing an important component for the validation of transgenic mammary cancer models.