Project description:BACKGROUND: The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective. RESULTS: We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L.) representing eight different genomes: Am, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups. CONCLUSIONS: We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two rounds of duplication of the locus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. (2n?=?14), a wild diploid wheat relative, has been the source of trait improvement in wheat breeding. Intraspecific genetic variation of Ae. umbellulata, however, has not been well studied and the genomic information in this species is limited. RESULTS:To develop novel genetic markers distributed over all chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata and to evaluate its genetic diversity, we performed RNA sequencing of 12 representative accessions and reconstructed transcripts by de novo assembly of reads for each accession. A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels) were obtained and anchored to the pseudomolecules of Ae. tauschii and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), which were regarded as virtual chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata. Interestingly, genetic diversity in Ae. umbellulata was higher than in Ae. tauschii, despite the narrow habitat of Ae. umbellulata. Comparative analyses of nucleotide polymorphisms between Ae. umbellulata and Ae. tauschii revealed no clear lineage differentiation and existence of alleles with rarer frequencies predominantly in Ae. umbellulata, with patterns clearly distinct from those in Ae. tauschii. CONCLUSIONS:The anchored SNPs, covering all chromosomes, provide sufficient genetic markers between Ae. umbellulata accessions. The alleles with rarer frequencies might be the main source of the high genetic diversity in Ae. umbellulata.
Project description:Aegilops umbellulata is a wild diploid wheat species with the UU genome that is an important genetic resource for wheat breeding. To exploit new synthetic allohexaploid lines available as bridges for wheat breeding, a total of 26 synthetic hexaploid lines were generated through crossing between the durum wheat cultivar Langdon and 26 accessions of Ae. umbellulata. In nascent synthetic hexaploids with the AABBUU genome, the presence of the set of seven U-genome chromosomes was confirmed with U-genome chromosome-specific markers developed based on RNA-seq-derived data from Ae. umbellulata. The AABBUU synthetic hexaploids showed large variations in flowering- and morphology-related traits, and these large variations transmitted well from the parental Ae. umbellulata accessions. However, the variation ranges in most traits examined were reduced under the AABBUU hexaploid background compared with under the diploid parents. The AABBUU and AABBDD synthetic hexaploids were clearly discriminated by several morphological traits, and an increase of plant height and in the number of spikes and a decrease of spike length were commonly observed in the AABBUU synthetics. Thus, interspecific differences in several morphological traits between Ae. umbellulata and A. tauschii largely affected the basic plant architecture of the synthetic hexaploids. In conclusion, the AABBUU synthetic hexaploid lines produced in the present study are useful resources for the introgression of desirable genes from Ae. umbellulata to common wheat.
Project description:Genetic diversity in cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes and their interaction affecting adaptive traits is an attractive research subject in plants. We addressed submergence stress response of wheat that has become increasingly important but remained largely uninvestigated. Our primary aim was to disclose cytoplasmic diversity using nucleus-cytoplasm (NC) hybrids possessing a series of heterologous cytoplasms in a common nuclear background. Effects of submergence on seedling emergence and growth from imbibed seeds were studied and compared with euplasmic lines. Marked phenotypic variabilities were observed among both lines, demonstrating divergent cytoplasmic and nuclear effects on submergence response. NC hybrids with cytoplasm of Aegilops mutica showed a less inhibition, indicative of their positive contribution to submergence tolerance, whereas cytoplasms of Aegilops umbellulata and related species caused a greater inhibition. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity showed a marked increase accompanied by retardation of seedling growth in a susceptible NC hybrid. The observation suggested that the elevated SOD activity was resulted from a high level of reactive oxygen species accumulated and remained in susceptible seedlings. Taken together, our results point to the usefulness of NC hybrids in further studies needed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying the nucleus-cytoplasm interaction regulating submergence stress response in wheat.
Project description:Many disease resistance genes that have been transferred from wild relatives to cultivated wheat have played a significant role in wheat production worldwide. Ae. umbellulata is one of the species within the genus Aegilops that have been successfully used as sources of resistance genes to leaf rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. The objectives of the current work was to validate the map position of a major QTL that confers resistance to the stem rust pathogen races Ug99 (TTKSK) and TTTTF with an independent bi-parental mapping population and to refine the QTL region with a bulk segregant analysis approach. Two F2 bi-parental mapping populations were developed from stem rust resistant Ae. umbellulata accessions (PI 298905 and PI 5422375) and stem rust susceptible accessions (PI 542369 and PI 554395). Firstly, one of the two populations was used to map the chromosome location of the resistance gene. Later on, the 2nd population was used to validate the chromosome location in combination with a bulk segregant analysis approach. For the bulk segregant analysis, RNA was extracted from a bulk of leaf tissues of 12 homozygous resistant F3 families, and a separate bulk of 11 susceptible homozygous F3 families derived from the PI 5422375 and PI 554395 cross. The RNA samples of the two bulks and the two parents were sequenced for SNPs identification. Stem rust resistance QTL was validated on chromosome 2U of Ae. umbellulata in the same region in both populations. With bulk segregant analysis, the QTL position was delimited within 3.2 Mbp. Although there were a large number of genes in the orthologous region of the detected QTL on chromosome 2D of Ae. tauschii, we detected only two Ae. umbellulata NLR genes which can be considered as a potential candidate genes.
Project description:Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.
Project description:Recent stem rust epidemics in eastern Africa and elsewhere demonstrated that wheat stem rust is a re-emerging disease posing a threat to wheat production worldwide. The cultivated wheat gene pool has a narrow genetic base for resistance to virulent races, such as races in the Ug99 race group. Wild relatives of wheat are a tractable source of stem rust resistance genes. Aegilops species in the tertiary genepool have not been exploited to any great extent as a source of stem rust resistance. We evaluated 1,422 accessions of Aegilops spp. for resistance to three highly virulent races (TTKSK, TRTTF, and TTTTF) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Species studied include Ae. biuncialis, Ae. caudata, Ae. comosa, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta, Ae. peregrina, Ae. triuncialis, and Ae. umbellulata that do not share common genomes with cultivated wheat. High frequencies of resistance were observed as 977 (68.8%), 927 (65.2%), and 850 (59.8%) accessions exhibited low infection types to races TTKSK, TTTTF, and TRTTF, respectively. Contingency table analyses showed strong association for resistance to different races in several Aegilops spp., indicating that for a given species, the resistance genes effective against multiple races. Inheritance studies in selected accessions showed that resistance to race TTKSK is simply inherited.
Project description:Wheat is one of the most important staple crops in the world and good source of calories and nutrition. Its flour and dough have unique physical properties and can be processed to make unique products like bread, cakes, biscuits, pasta, noodles etc., which is not possible from other staple crops. Due to domestication, the genetic variability of the genes coding for different economically important traits in wheat is narrow. This genetic variability can be increased by utilizing its wild relatives. Its closest relative, genus Aegilops can be an important source of new alleles. Aegilops has played a very important role in evolution of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. It consists of 22 species with C, D, M, N, S, T and U genomes with high allelic diversity relative to wheat. Its utilization for wheat improvement for various abiotic and biotic stresses has been reported by various scientific publications. Here in, for the first time, we review the potential of Aegilops for improvement of processing and nutritional traits in wheat. Among processing quality related gluten proteins; high molecular weight glutenins (HMW GS), being easiest to study have been explored in highest number of accessions or lines i.e., 681 belonging to 13 species and selected ones like Ae. searsii, Ae. geniculata and Ae. longissima have been linked with improved bread making quality of wheat. Gliadins and low molecular weight glutenins (LMW GS) have also been extensively explored for wheat improvement and Ae. umbellulata specific LMW GS have been linked with wheat bread making quality improvement. Aegilops has been explored for seed texture diversity and proteins like puroindolins (Pin) and grain softness proteins (GSP). For nutrition quality improvement, it has been screened for essential micronutrients like Fe, Zn, phytochemicals like carotenoids and dietary fibers like arabinoxylan and ?-glucan. Ae. kotschyi and Ae. biuncialis transfer in wheat have been associated with higher Fe, Zn content. In this article we have tried to compile information available on exploration of nutritional and processing quality related traits in Aegilops section and their utilization for wheat improvement by different approaches.