Project description:Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20 Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100,000 years.
2006-01-01 | S-EPMC1618913 | BioStudies
Project description:Eyes of Alvinocaris longirostris
Project description:The paper addresses the phylogeny and classification of the hydrothermal vent shrimp family Alvinocarididae. Two morphological cladistic analyses were carried out, which use all 31 recognized species of Alvinocarididae as terminal taxa. As outgroups, two species were included, both representing major caridean clades: Acanthephyra purpurea (Acanthephyridae) and Alpheus echiurophilus (Alpheidae). For additional support of the clades we utilised available data on mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I gene (CO1) and 16S ribosomal markers. Both morphological and molecular methods resulted in similar tree topologies and nearly identical clades. We consider these clades as evolutionary units and thus erect two new subfamilies: Rimicaridinae (Alvinocaridinides, Manuscaris, Opaepele, Shinkaicaris, Rimicaris), Alvinocaridinae (Alvinocaris), whilst recognising Mirocaridinae (with genera Mirocaris and Nautilocaris) at subfamily level. One genus, Keldyshicaris could not be assigned to any subfamily and is thus left as incertae sedis. The monophyly of Alvinocardinae was supported by morphological data, but not supported by molecular data (two analyses); the monophyly of all subfamilies was supported both by morphological and molecular data. Chorocaris is herein synonymized with Rimicaris, whilst Opaepele vavilovi is herein transferred to a new genus Keldyshicaris. Morphological trends within Alvinocarididae are discussed and short biogeographical remarks are given. We provide emended diagnoses for all subfamilies and genera along with keys to all recognized species.
Project description:Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.
Project description:Diffusing fluid at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent creates rapid, acute physico-chemical gradients that correlate strongly with the distribution of the vent fauna. Two alvinocaridid shrimps, Alvinocaris longirostris and Shinkaicaris leurokolos occupy distinct microhabitats around these vents and exhibit different thermal preferences. S. leurokolos inhabits the central area closer to the active chimney, while A. longirostris inhabits the peripheral area. In this study, we screened candidate genes that might be involved in niche separation and microhabitat adaptation through comparative transcriptomics. The results showed that among the top 20% of overexpressed genes, gene families related to protein synthesis and structural components were much more abundant in S. leurokolos compared to A. longirostris. Moreover, 15 out of 25 genes involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism were related to trehalose biosynthesis, versus 1 out of 5 in A. longirostris. Trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide, is a multifunctional molecule and has been proven to act as a protectant responsible for thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative positively selected genes involved in chitin metabolism and the immune system (lectin, serine protease and antimicrobial peptide) were enriched in S. leurokolos. In particular, one collagen and two serine proteases were found to have experienced strong positive selection. In addition, sulfotransferase-related genes were both overexpressed and positively selected in S. leurokolos. Finally, genes related to structural proteins, immune proteins and protectants were overexpressed or positively selected. These characteristics could represent adaptations of S. leurokolos to its microhabitat, which need to be confirmed by more evidence, such as data from large samples and different development stages of these alvinocaridid shrimps.
Project description:The Bacillus cereus group is frequently isolated from soil, plants, food, and other environments. In this study, we report the first isolation and characterization of a B. cereus group member, Bacillus wiedmannii SR52, from the hydrothermal field in the Iheya Ridge of Okinawa Trough. SR52 was isolated from the gills of shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris, an invertebrate species found abundantly in the ecosystems of the hydrothermal vents, and is most closely related to B. wiedmannii FSL W8-0169. SR52 is aerobic, motile, and able to form endospores. SR52 can grow in NaCl concentrations up to 9%. SR52 has a circular chromosome of 5,448,361 bp and a plasmid of 137,592 bp, encoding 5,709 and 189 genes, respectively. The chromosome contains 297 putative virulence genes, including those encoding enterotoxins and hemolysins. Fourteen rRNA operons, 107 tRNAs, and 5 sRNAs are present in the chromosome, and 7 tRNAs are present in the plasmid. SR52 possesses 13 genomic islands (GIs), all on the chromosome. Comparing to FSL W8-0169, SR52 exhibits several streaking features in its genome, notably an exceedingly large number of non-coding RNAs and GIs. In vivo studies showed that following intramuscular injection into fish, SR52 was able to disseminate in tissues and cause mortality; when inoculated into mice, SR52 induced acute mortality and disseminated transiently in tissues. In vitro studies showed that SR52 possessed hemolytic activity, and the extracellular product of SR52 exhibited a strong cytotoxic effect. These results provided the first insight into the cytotoxicity and genomic feature of B. wiedmannii from the deep-sea hydrothermal environment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are unique chemoautotrophic ecosystems with harsh conditions. Alvinocaris longirostris is one of the dominant crustacean species inhabiting in these extreme environments. It is significant to clarify mechanisms in their adaptation to the vents. Lysine acetylation has been known to play critical roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. However, its function in A. longirostris and even marine invertebrates remains elusive. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in A. longirostris. RESULTS:In total, 501 unique acetylation sites from 206 proteins were identified by combination of affinity enrichment and high-sensitive-massspectrometer. It was revealed that Arg, His and Lys occurred most frequently at the + 1 position downstream of the acetylation sites, which were all alkaline amino acids and positively charged. Functional analysis revealed that the protein acetylation was involved in diverse cellular processes, such as biosynthesis of amino acids, citrate cycle, fatty acid degradation and oxidative phosphorylation. Acetylated proteins were found enriched in mitochondrion and peroxisome, and many stress response related proteins were also discovered to be acetylated, like arginine kinases, heat shock protein 70, and hemocyanins. In the two hemocyanins, nine acetylation sites were identified, among which one acetylation site was unique in A. longirostris when compared with other shallow water shrimps. Further studies are warranted to verify its function. CONCLUSION:The lysine acetylome of A. longirostris is investigated for the first time and brings new insights into the regulation function of the lysine acetylation. The results supply abundant resources for exploring the functions of acetylation in A. longirostris and other shrimps.