Project description:BACKGROUND: Hypochromic microcytic anemia associated with ineffective erythropoiesis caused by recessive mutations in divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) can be improved with high-dose erythropoietin supplementation. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare erythropoiesis in samples from a DMT1-mutant patient before and after treatment with erythropoietin, as well as in a mouse model with a DMT1 mutation, the mk/mk mice. DESIGN AND METHODS: Colony assays were used to compare the in vitro growth of pre-treatment and post-treatment erythroid progenitors in a DMT1-mutant patient. To enable a comparison with human data, high doses of erythropoietin were administered to mk/mk mice. The apoptotic status of erythroblasts, the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and the key components of the bone marrow-hepcidin axis were evaluated. RESULTS: Erythropoietin therapy in vivo or the addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor in vitro significantly improved the growth of human DMT1-mutant erythroid progenitors. A decreased number of apoptotic erythroblasts was detected in the patient's bone marrow after erythropoietin treatment. In mk/mk mice, erythropoietin administration increased activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and reduced apoptosis in bone marrow and spleen erythroblasts. mk/mk mice propagated on the 129S6/SvEvTac background resembled DMT1-mutant patients in having increased plasma iron but differed by having functional iron deficiency after erythropoietin administration. Co-regulation of hepcidin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) levels was observed in mk/mk mice but not in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Erythropoietin inhibits apoptosis of DMT1-mutant erythroid progenitors and differentiating erythroblasts. Ineffective erythropoiesis associated with defective erythroid iron utilization due to DMT1 mutations has specific biological and clinical features.
Project description:Erythropoietin is essential for bone marrow erythropoiesis and erythropoietin receptor on non-erythroid cells including bone marrow stromal cells suggests systemic effects of erythropoietin. Tg6 mice with chronic erythropoietin overexpression have a high hematocrit, reduced trabecular and cortical bone and bone marrow adipocytes, and decreased bone morphogenic protein 2 driven ectopic bone and adipocyte formation. Erythropoietin treatment (1 200 IU·kg-1) for 10 days similarly exhibit increased hematocrit, reduced bone and bone marrow adipocytes without increased osteoclasts, and reduced bone morphogenic protein signaling in the bone marrow. Interestingly, endogenous erythropoietin is required for normal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes. ΔEpoRE mice with erythroid restricted erythropoietin receptor exhibit reduced trabecular bone, increased bone marrow adipocytes, and decreased bone morphogenic protein 2 ectopic bone formation. Erythropoietin treated ΔEpoRE mice achieved hematocrit similar to wild-type mice without reduced bone, suggesting that bone reduction with erythropoietin treatment is associated with non-erythropoietic erythropoietin response. Bone marrow stromal cells from wild-type, Tg6, and ΔEpoRE-mice were transplanted into immunodeficient mice to assess development into a bone/marrow organ. Like endogenous bone formation, Tg6 bone marrow cells exhibited reduced differentiation to bone and adipocytes indicating that high erythropoietin inhibits osteogenesis and adipogenesis, while ΔEpoRE bone marrow cells formed ectopic bones with reduced trabecular regions and increased adipocytes, indicating that loss of erythropoietin signaling favors adipogenesis at the expense of osteogenesis. In summary, endogenous erythropoietin signaling regulates bone marrow stromal cell fate and aberrant erythropoietin levels result in their impaired differentiation.
Project description:Progressive bone marrow failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human Fanconi Anemia patients. In an effort to develop a Fanconi Anemia murine model to study bone marrow failure, we found that Fancd2(-/-) mice have readily measurable hematopoietic defects. Fancd2 deficiency was associated with a significant decline in the size of the c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lineage(-) (KSL) pool and reduced stem cell repopulation and spleen colony-forming capacity. Fancd2(-/-) KSL cells showed an abnormal cell cycle status and loss of quiescence. In addition, the supportive function of the marrow microenvironment was compromised in Fancd2(-/-) mice. Treatment with Sirt1-mimetic and the antioxidant drug, resveratrol, maintained Fancd2(-/-) KSL cells in quiescence, improved the marrow microenvironment, partially corrected the abnormal cell cycle status, and significantly improved the spleen colony-forming capacity of Fancd2(-/-) bone marrow cells. We conclude that Fancd2(-/-) mice have readily quantifiable hematopoietic defects, and that this model is well suited for pharmacologic screening studies.
Project description:UCP2, an inner membrane mitochondrial protein, has been implicated in bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulation. High levels of UCP2 mRNA were recently found in erythroid cells where UCP2 is hypothesized to function as a facilitator of heme synthesis and iron metabolism by reducing ROS production. We examined UCP2 protein expression and role in mice erythropoiesis in vivo. UCP2 was mainly expressed at early stages of erythroid maturation when cells are not fully committed in heme synthesis. Iron incorporation into heme was unaltered in reticulocytes from UCP2-deficient mice. Although heme synthesis was not influenced by UCP2 deficiency, mice lacking UCP2 had a delayed recovery from chemically induced hemolytic anemia. Analysis of progenitor cells from bone marrow and fetal liver both in vitro and in vivo revealed that UCP2 deficiency results in a significant decrease in cell proliferation at the erythropoietin-dependent phase of erythropoiesis. This was accompanied by reduction in the phosphorylated form of ERK, a ROS-dependent cytosolic regulator of cell proliferation. Analysis of ROS in UCP2 null erythroid cells revealed altered distribution of ROS, resulting in decreased cytosolic and increased mitochondrial ROS. Restoration of the cytosol oxidative state of erythroid progenitor cells by the pro-oxidant Paraquat reversed the effect of UCP2 deficiency on cell proliferation in in vitro differentiation assays. Together, these results indicate that UCP2 is a regulator of erythropoiesis and suggests that inhibition of UCP2 function may contribute to the development of anemia.
Project description:An important comorbidity of chronic inflammation is anemia, which may be related to dysregulated activity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Among HSPCs, we found that the receptor for IL-33, ST2, is expressed preferentially and highly on erythroid progenitors. Induction of inflammatory spondyloarthritis in mice increased IL-33 in BM plasma, and IL-33 was required for inflammation-dependent suppression of erythropoiesis in BM. Conversely, administration of IL-33 in healthy mice suppressed erythropoiesis, decreased hemoglobin expression, and caused anemia. Using purified erythroid progenitors in vitro, we show that IL-33 directly inhibited terminal maturation. This effect was dependent on NF-?B activation and associated with altered signaling events downstream of the erythropoietin receptor. Accordingly, IL-33 also suppressed erythropoietin-accelerated erythropoiesis in vivo. These results reveal a role for IL-33 in pathogenesis of anemia during inflammatory disease and define a new target for its treatment.
Project description:TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) are expressed in hematopoietic tissues. The roles of the three receptors in hematopoiesis are, however, largely unknown. We investigated the role of TAM receptors in regulating erythropoiesis.Single and double mutant mice for Axl and Mer were used in the study. Cellularity of bone marrow and spleen, hematologic parameters, flow cytometry analysis of erythroid cell maturation, erythropoietic response to acute hemolytic anemia, bone marrow transplantation and the expression of erythropoisis were analyzed to evaluate the function of Axl and Mer in erythropoiesis.Axl and Mer, but not Tyro3, were constitutively expressed in developing erythroid cells. Mice lacking Axl and Mer (Axl(-/-)Me(-/-)) had impaired erythropoiesis in bone marrow and expanded splenic erythropoiesis. We found an inhibition of differentiation at the transition from erythroid progenitors to proerythroblasts in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. These mice exhibited a low rate of erythropoietic response to acute anemia induced by phenylhydrazine. Bone marrow transplantation studies showed that the impaired erythropoiesis in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice is erythroid cell-autonomous. TAM receptors may influence erythropoiesis through the regulation of GATA-1 erythropoietin receptor and EpoR expression in erythroid progenitors. Notably, mice lacking single Axl or Mer exhibited normal erythropoiesis in steady-state conditions.Axl and Mer play an important role in regulating erythropoiesis. This finding provides a novel insight into the mechanism of erythropoiesis.
Project description:Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is a form of hyperlipidemia, which may be a consequence of diet, obesity or diabetes. In addition, increased levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with a higher risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Thus, controlling cholesterol levels is commonly necessary, and fibrates have been used as lipid-lowering drugs. Gemfibrozil is a fibrate that acts via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to promote changes in lipid metabolism and decrease serum triglyceride levels. However, anemia and leukopenia are known side effects of gemfibrozil. Considering that gemfibrozil may lead to anemia and that gemfibrozil acts via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, we treated wild-type and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-knockout mice with gemfibrozil for four consecutive days. Gemfibrozil treatment led to anemia seven days after the first administration of the drug; we found reduced levels of hemoglobin, as well as red blood cells, white blood cells and a reduced percentage of hematocrits. PPAR-alpha-knockout mice were capable of reversing all of those reduced parameters induced by gemfibrozil treatment. Erythropoietin levels were increased in the serum of gemfibrozil-treated animals, and we also observed an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2?) and erythropoietin in renal tissue, while PPAR-alpha knockout mice treated with gemfibrozil did not present increased levels of serum erythropoietin or tissue HIF-2? and erythropoietin mRNA levels in the kidneys. We analyzed bone marrow and found that gemfibrozil reduced erythrocytes and hematopoietic stem cells in wild-type mice but not in PPAR-alpha-knockout mice, while increased colony-forming units were observed only in wild-type mice treated with gemfibrozil. Here, we show for the first time that gemfibrozil treatment leads to anemia and leukopenia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in mice.
Project description:Mice carrying certain mutations in the white spotting (W) locus (ie, c-kit) exhibit reduced c-kit tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling that results in mast cell deficiency and other phenotypic abnormalities. The c-kit mutations in Kit(W/W-v) mice impair melanogenesis and result in anemia, sterility, and markedly reduced levels of tissue mast cells. In contrast, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice, bearing the W-sash (W(sh)) inversion mutation, have mast cell deficiency but lack anemia and sterility. We report that adult Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice had a profound deficiency in mast cells in all tissues examined but normal levels of major classes of other differentiated hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Unlike Kit(W/W-v) mice, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice had normal numbers of TCR gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestines and did not exhibit a high incidence of idiopathic dermatitis, ulcers, or squamous papillomas of the stomach, but like Kit(W/W-v) mice, they lacked interstitial cells of Cajal in the gut and exhibited bile reflux into the stomach. Systemic or local reconstitution of mast cell populations was achieved in nonirradiated adult Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice by intravenous, intraperitoneal, or intradermal injection of wild-type bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells but not by transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells. Thus, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice represent a useful model for mast cell research, especially for analyzing mast cell function in vivo.
Project description:In adult mammals, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow and are in part regulated by the bone marrow microenvironment, called the stem cell niche. We have previously identified the bone marrow morphogen osteopontin (OPN), which is abundantly present in the bone marrow extracellular matrix, as a negative regulator of the size of the HSC pool under physiological conditions. Here, we study the impact of OPN on HSC function during aging using an OPN-knockout mouse model. We show that during aging OPN deficiency is associated with an increase in lymphocytes and a decline in erythrocytes in peripheral blood. In a bone marrow transplantation setting, aged OPN-deficient stem cells show reduced reconstitution ability likely due to insufficient differentiation of HSCs into more mature cells. In serial bone marrow transplantation, aged OPN-/- bone marrow cells fail to adequately reconstitute red blood cells and platelets, resulting in severe anemia and thrombocytopenia as well as premature deaths of recipient mice. Thus, OPN has different effects on HSCs in aged and young animals and is particularly important to maintain stem cell function in aging mice.
Project description:The secreted protein CCBE1 is required for lymphatic vessel growth in fish and mice, and mutations in the CCBE1 gene cause Hennekam syndrome, a primary human lymphedema. Here we show that loss of CCBE1 also confers severe anemia in midgestation mouse embryos due to defective definitive erythropoiesis. Fetal liver erythroid precursors of Ccbe1 null mice exhibit reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Colony-forming assays and hematopoietic reconstitution studies suggest that CCBE1 promotes fetal liver erythropoiesis cell nonautonomously. Consistent with these findings, Ccbe1(lacZ) reporter expression is not detected in hematopoietic cells and conditional deletion of Ccbe1 in hematopoietic cells does not confer anemia. The expression of the erythropoietic factors erythropoietin and stem cell factor is preserved in CCBE1 null embryos, but erythroblastic island (EBI) formation is reduced due to abnormal macrophage function. In contrast to the profound effects on fetal liver erythropoiesis, postnatal deletion of Ccbe1 does not confer anemia, even under conditions of erythropoietic stress, and EBI formation is normal in the bone marrow of adult CCBE1 knockout mice. Our findings reveal that CCBE1 plays an essential role in regulating the fetal liver erythropoietic environment and suggest that EBI formation is regulated differently in the fetal liver and bone marrow.