Project description:Previous studies with Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium species revealed that the transcriptional regulator DtxR and its ortholog IdeR play a central role in the control of iron metabolism. In the present work, we used genome-based approaches to determine the DtxR regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a nonpathogenic relative of C. diphtheriae. First, global gene expression of a dtxR deletion mutant was compared with that of the wild type using DNA microarrays. Second, we used a computer-based approach to identify 117 putative DtxR binding sites in the C. glutamicum genome. In the third step, 74 of the corresponding genome regions were amplified by PCR, 51 of which were shifted by the DtxR protein. Finally, we analyzed which of the genes preceded by a functional DtxR binding site showed altered mRNA levels in the transcriptome comparison. Fifty-one genes organized in 27 putative operons displayed an increased mRNA level in the DeltadtxR mutant and thus are presumably repressed by DtxR. The majority of these genes are obviously involved in iron acquisition, three encode transcriptional regulators, e.g., the recently identified repressor of iron proteins RipA, and the others encode proteins of diverse or unknown functions. Thirteen genes showed a decreased mRNA level in the DeltadtxR mutant and thus might be activated by DtxR. This group included the suf operon, whose products are involved in the formation and repair of iron-sulfur clusters, and several genes for transcriptional regulators. Our results clearly establish DtxR as the master regulator of iron-dependent gene expression in C. glutamicum.
Project description:The pyruvate kinase gene pyk from Corynebacterium glutamicum was cloned by applying a combination of PCR, site-specific mutagenesis, and complementation. A 126-bp DNA fragment central to the C. glutamicum pyk gene was amplified from genomic DNA by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotides as primers. The cloned DNA fragment was used to inactivate the pyk gene in C. glutamicum by marker rescue mutagenesis via homologous recombination. The C. glutamicum pyk mutant obtained was unable to grow on minimal medium containing ribose as the sole carbon source. Complementation of this phenotype by a gene library resulted in the isolation of a 2.8-kb PstI-BamHI genomic DNA fragment harboring the C. glutamicum pyk gene. Multiple copies of plasmid-borne pyk caused a 20-fold increase of pyruvate kinase activity in C. glutamicum cell extracts. By using large internal fragments of the cloned C. glutamicum gene, pyk mutant derivatives of the lysine production strain Corynebacterium lactofermentum 21799 were generated by marker rescue mutagenesis. As determined in shake flask fermentations, lysine production in pyk mutants was 40% lower than that in the pyk+ parent strain, indicating that pyruvate kinase is essential for high-level lysine production. This finding questions an earlier hypothesis postulating that redirection of carbon flow at the phosphoenol pyruvate branch point of glycolysis through elimination of pyruvate kinase activity results in an increase of lysine production in C. glutamicum and its close relatives.
Project description:We have reported a transcription profile of an adapted Corynebacterium glutamicum that showed enhanced oxidative stress resistance. To construct an artificial oxidative stress-resistant strain, gene clusters in the ?-ketoadipate pathway, which were up-regulated in the adapted strain, were artificially expressed in the wild-type C. glutamicum. The wild-type strain was unable to grow under 2 mM H2O2 containing minimal medium, while the strains expressing pca gene clusters restored growth under the same medium, and the pcaHGBC expression showed the most significant effect among the gene clusters. The expressions of pca gene clusters also enabled the wild-type to increase its resistance against oxidative stressors, such as diamide and cumene hydroperoxide, as well as H2O2. The oxidative stress tolerance of the strain was correlated to the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity of the cell extract. The reason for the enhanced oxidative stress-resistance of C. glutamicum and its applications on the synthetic strain development are discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum contains the glycosylated C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin as yellow pigment. Starting from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is generated in the non-mevalonate pathway, decaprenoxanthin is synthesized via the intermediates farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, lycopene and flavuxanthin. RESULTS: Here, we showed that the genes of the carotenoid gene cluster crtE-cg0722-crtBIYeYfEb are co-transcribed and characterized defined gene deletion mutants. Gene deletion analysis revealed that crtI, crtEb, and crtYeYf, respectively, code for the only phytoene desaturase, lycopene elongase, and carotenoid C45/C50 ?-cyclase, respectively. However, the genome of C. glutamicum also encodes a second carotenoid gene cluster comprising crtB2I2-1/2 shown to be co-transcribed, as well. Ectopic expression of crtB2 could compensate for the lack of phytoene synthase CrtB in C. glutamicum ?crtB, thus, C. glutamicum possesses two functional phytoene synthases, namely CrtB and CrtB2. Genetic evidence for a crtI2-1/2 encoded phytoene desaturase could not be obtained since plasmid-borne expression of crtI2-1/2 did not compensate for the lack of phytoene desaturase CrtI in C. glutamicum ?crtI. The potential of C. glutamicum to overproduce carotenoids was estimated with lycopene as example. Deletion of the gene crtEb prevented conversion of lycopene to decaprenoxanthin and entailed accumulation of lycopene to 0.03?±?0.01 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW). When the genes crtE, crtB and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were overexpressed in C. glutamicum ?crtEb intensely red-pigmented cells and an 80 fold increased lycopene content of 2.4?±?0.3 mg/g CDW were obtained. CONCLUSION: C. glutamicum possesses a certain degree of redundancy in the biosynthesis of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin as it possesses two functional phytoene synthase genes. Already metabolic engineering of only the terminal reactions leading to lycopene resulted in considerable lycopene production indicating that C. glutamicum may serve as a potential host for carotenoid production.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important organism for the industrial production of amino acids. Metabolic pathways in this organism are usually engineered by conventional methods such as homologous recombination, which depends on rare double-crossover events. To facilitate the mapping of gene expression levels to metabolic outputs, we applied CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) technology using deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) to repress genes in C. glutamicum. We then determined the effects of target repression on amino acid titers. Single-guide RNAs directing dCas9 to specific targets reduced expression of pgi and pck up to 98%, and of pyk up to 97%, resulting in titer enhancement ratios of l-lysine and l-glutamate production comparable to levels achieved by gene deletion. This approach for C. glutamicum metabolic engineering, which only requires 3 days, indicates that CRISPRi can be used for quick and efficient metabolic pathway remodeling without the need for gene deletions or mutations and subsequent selection.
Project description:Gene expression changes of glutamate-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum were identified in transcriptome comparisons by DNA microarray analysis. During glutamate production induced by a temperature shift, C. glutamicum strain 2262 showed significantly higher mRNA levels of the NCgl2816 and NCgl2817 genes than its non-glutamate-producing derivative 2262NP. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that the two genes together constitute an operon. NCgl2816 putatively codes for a lactate permease, while NCgl2817 was demonstrated to encode quinone-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase, which was named LldD. C. glutamicum LldD displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the substrate l-lactate with a K(m) of about 0.51 mM. The specific activity of LldD was about 10-fold higher during growth on l-lactate or on an l-lactate-glucose mixture than during growth on glucose, d-lactate, or pyruvate, while the specific activity of quinone-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase differed little with the carbon source. RNA levels of NCgl2816 and lldD were about 18-fold higher during growth on l-lactate than on pyruvate. Disruption of the NCgl2816-lldD operon resulted in loss of the ability to utilize l-lactate as the sole carbon source. Expression of lldD restored l-lactate utilization, indicating that the function of the permease gene NCgl2816 is dispensable, while LldD is essential, for growth of C. glutamicum on l-lactate.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial metabolite producer that is difficult to genetically engineer. Although the Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted for genome editing of multiple bacteria, it cannot be introduced into C. glutamicum. Here we report a Francisella novicida (Fn) CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome-editing method for C. glutamicum. CRISPR-Cpf1, combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering, precisely introduces small changes into the bacterial genome at efficiencies of 86-100%. Large gene deletions and insertions are also obtained using an all-in-one plasmid consisting of FnCpf1, CRISPR RNA, and homologous arms. The two CRISPR-Cpf1-assisted systems enable N iterative rounds of genome editing in 3N+4 or 3N+2 days. A proof-of-concept, codon saturation mutagenesis at G149 of γ-glutamyl kinase relieves L-proline inhibition using Cpf1-assisted ssDNA recombineering. Thus, CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome editing provides a highly efficient tool for genetic engineering of Corynebacterium and other bacteria that cannot utilize the Sp CRISPR-Cas9 system.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is an established and industrially-relevant microbial host that has been utilized for the expression of many desirable bioproducts. Tetra-methylpyrazine (TMP) is a naturally occurring alkylpyrazine with broad applications spanning fragrances to resins. We identified an engineered strain of C. glutamicum which produces 5 ?g/L TMP and separately, a strain which can co-produce both TMP and the biofuel compound isopentenol. Ionic liquids also stimulate TMP production in engineered strains. Using a fed batch-mode feeding strategy, ionic liquid stimulated strains produced 2.2 ?g/L of tetra-methylpyrazine. We show that feedback from a specific heterologous gene pathway on host physiology leads to acetoin accumulation and the production of TMP.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Zinc is considered as an essential element for all living organisms, but it can be toxic at large concentrations. Bacteria therefore tightly regulate zinc metabolism. The Cg2502 protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum was a candidate to control zinc metabolism in this species, since it was classified as metalloregulator of the zinc uptake regulator (Zur) subgroup of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of DNA-binding transcription regulators. RESULTS: The cg2502 (zur) gene was deleted in the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by an allelic exchange procedure to generate the zur-deficient mutant C. glutamicum JS2502. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and real-time RT-PCR assays comparing the gene expression in C. glutamicum JS2502 with that of the wild-type strain detected 18 genes with enhanced expression in the zur mutant. The expression data were combined with results from cross-genome comparisons of shared regulatory sites, revealing the presence of candidate Zur-binding sites in the mapped promoter regions of five transcription units encoding components of potential zinc ABC-type transporters (cg0041-cg0042/cg0043; cg2911-cg2912-cg2913), a putative secreted protein (cg0040), a putative oxidoreductase (cg0795), and a putative P-loop GTPase of the COG0523 protein family (cg0794). Enhanced transcript levels of the respective genes in C. glutamicum JS2502 were verified by real-time RT-PCR, and complementation of the mutant with a wild-type zur gene reversed the effect of differential gene expression. The zinc-dependent expression of the putative cg0042 and cg2911 operons was detected in vivo with a gfp reporter system. Moreover, the zinc-dependent binding of purified Zur protein to double-stranded 40-mer oligonucleotides containing candidate Zur-binding sites was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. CONCLUSION: Whole-genome expression profiling and DNA band shift assays demonstrated that Zur directly represses in a zinc-dependent manner the expression of nine genes organized in five transcription units. Accordingly, the Zur (Cg2502) protein is the key transcription regulator for genes involved in zinc homeostasis in C. glutamicum.
Project description:The Corynebacterium alkanolyticum xylEFGD gene cluster comprises the xylD gene that encodes an intracellular ?-xylosidase next to the xylEFG operon encoding a substrate-binding protein and two membrane permease proteins of a xyloside ABC transporter. Cloning of the cluster revealed a recombinant ?-xylosidase of moderately high activity (turnover for p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xylopyranoside of 111 ± 4 s(-1)), weak ?-l-arabinofuranosidase activity (turnover for p-nitrophenyl-?-l-arabinofuranoside of 5 ± 1 s(-1)), and high tolerance to product inhibition (Ki for xylose of 67.6 ± 2.6 mM). Heterologous expression of the entire cluster under the control of the strong constitutive tac promoter in the Corynebacterium glutamicum xylose-fermenting strain X1 enabled the resultant strain X1EFGD to rapidly utilize not only xylooligosaccharides but also arabino-xylooligosaccharides. The ability to utilize arabino-xylooligosaccharides depended on cgR_2369, a gene encoding a multitask ATP-binding protein. Heterologous expression of the contiguous xylD gene in strain X1 led to strain X1D with 10-fold greater ?-xylosidase activity than strain X1EFGD, albeit with a total loss of arabino-xylooligosaccharide utilization ability and only half the ability to utilize xylooligosaccharides. The findings suggest some inherent ability of C. glutamicum to take up xylooligosaccharides, an ability that is enhanced by in the presence of a functional xylEFG-encoded xyloside ABC transporter. The finding that xylEFG imparts nonnative ability to take up arabino-xylooligosaccharides should be useful in constructing industrial strains with efficient fermentation of arabinoxylan, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.