Project description:Copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), itaconamic acid (IAM; 4-amino-2-methylene-4-oxobutanoic acid) and ?-cyclodextrin was investigated in this study. ?-cyclodextrin was at first modified by reacting with allyl glycidyl ether to substitute its OH end groups with moieties containing double bonds to facilitate the subsequent radical copolymerization with NIPAM and IAM. It was reported that poly(NIPAM-IAM) can respond to the change of temperature as well as pH value. In this study, the structure of ?-cyclodextrin was introduced to poly(NIPAM-IAM) copolymers because of its cavity structure capable of encapsulating a variety of drug molecules. The tri-component copolymers, poly(CD-NIPAM-IAM), were synthesized with different monomeric ratios of NIPAM/IAM/?-CD and the hydrogels of the tri-component copolymers were also synthesized by additionally adding N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The results show that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the copolymer (or hydrogel) increases as the molar fraction of IAM increases. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of linear copolymers (no cross-linking) show that molecules undergo self-assembly to have a distinct core-shell structure, compared to poly(CD-NIPAM) which contains no IAM. On the other hand, the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of hydrogels show that the pores gradually become sheet-like structures as the molar fraction of IAM increases to enhance the water absorption capacity. In order to exhibit the thermal and pH sensitivities of poly(CD-NIPAM-IAM) as the drug carrier, the drug release of the newly synthesized hydrogels at 37 °C and different pH values, pH = 2 and pH = 7.4, was investigated using atorvastatin which was used primarily as a lipid-lowering drug. The drug release experimental result shows that poly(CD-NIPAM-IAM) as a drug carrier was pH-sensitive and has the largest release rate at pH = 7.4 at 37 °C, indicating it is useful to release drugs in a neutral or alkaline (intestinal) environment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The invasion associated marker (iam) has been detected in the majority of invasive Campylobacter jejuni retrieved from humans. Furthermore, the detection of iam in C. jejuni isolated from two important hosts, humans and chickens, suggested a role for this marker in C. jejuni's colonization of multiple hosts. However, no data exist regarding the occurrence of this marker in C. jejuni isolated from non-poultry food-animals such as cattle, an increasingly important source for human infections. Since little is known about the genetics associated with C. jejuni's capability for colonizing physiologically disparate hosts, we investigated the occurrence of the iam in C. jejuni isolated from cattle and assessed the potential of iam-containing cattle and human isolates for chicken colonization and human cell invasion. RESULTS: Simultaneous RAPD typing and iam-specific PCR analysis of 129 C. jejuni isolated from 1171 cattle fecal samples showed that 8 (6.2%) of the isolates were iam-positive, while 7 (54%) of human-associated isolates were iam-positive. The iam sequences were mostly heterogeneous and occurred in diverse genetic backgrounds. All iam-positive isolates were motile and possessed important genes (cadF, ciaB, cdtB) associated with adhesion and virulence. Although certain iam-containing isolates invaded and survived in INT-407 cells in high numbers and successfully colonized live chickens, there was no clear association between the occurrence, allelic sequence, and expression levels of the iam and the aforementioned phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the prevalence of iam in cattle C. jejuni is relatively lower as compared to isolates occurring in humans and chickens. In addition, iam was polymorphic and certain alleles occur in cattle isolates that were capable of colonizing and invading chickens and human intestinal cells, respectively. However, the iam did not appear to contribute to the cattle-associated C. jejuni's potential for invasion and intracellular survival in human intestinal cells as well as chicken colonization.
Project description:Currently, rapid evaluation of the physicochemical parameters of drug candidates, such as lipophilicity, is in high demand owing to it enabling the approximation of the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Although the lipophilicity of drug candidates is determined using the shake flash method (n-octanol/water system) or reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC), more biosimilar alternatives to classical lipophilicity measurement are currently available. One of the alternatives is immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography. The present study is a continuation of our research focused on physiochemical characterization of biologically active derivatives of isoxazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3(1H)-ones. The main goal of this study was to assess the affinity of isoxazolones to phospholipids using IAM chromatography and compare it with the lipophilicity parameters established by reversed phase chromatography. Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) modeling of IAM retention using differential evolution coupled with partial least squares (DE-PLS) regression was performed. The results indicate that in the studied group of structurally related isoxazolone derivatives, discrepancies occur between the retention under IAM and RP-LC conditions. Although some correlation between these two chromatographic methods can be found, lipophilicity does not fully explain the affinities of the investigated molecules to phospholipids. QSRR analysis also shows common factors that contribute to retention under IAM and RP-LC conditions. In this context, the significant influences of WHIM and GETAWAY descriptors in all the obtained models should be highlighted.
Project description:Amidases [EC 126.96.36.199] capable of converting indole-3-acetamide (IAM) into the major plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are assumed to be involved in auxin de novo biosynthesis. With the emerging amount of genomics data, it was possible to identify over forty proteins with substantial homology to the already characterized amidases from Arabidopsis and tobacco. The observed high conservation of amidase-like proteins throughout the plant kingdom may suggest an important role of theses enzymes in plant development. Here, we report cloning and functional analysis of four, thus far, uncharacterized plant amidases from Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. Intriguingly, we were able to demonstrate that the examined amidases are also capable of converting phenyl-2-acetamide (PAM) into phenyl-2-acetic acid (PAA), an auxin endogenous to several plant species including Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we compared the subcellular localization of the enzymes to that of Arabidopsis AMI1, providing further evidence for similar enzymatic functions. Our results point to the presence of a presumably conserved pathway of auxin biosynthesis via IAM, as amidases, both of monocot, and dicot origins, were analyzed.