Project description:In recent years, Enteromorpha prolifera blooms had serious impacts on costal environments and fisheries in China. Nevertheless, the effects of E. prolifera on microbial ecology remain unknown. In this study, for the first time, an Illumina sequencing analysis was used to investigate bacterial communities in source water, aquaculture ponds with E. prolifera, and an aquaculture pond in which E. prolifera -free. Principal coordinate and phylogenic analyses revealed obvious differences among the bacterial communities in the pond water with and without E. prolifera. Abundant bacterial taxa in the E. prolifera-containing pond were generally absent from the pond without E. prolifera. Interestingly, pond water with E. prolifera was dominated by Actinomycetales (> 50%), as well as by anaerobic bacteria in the underlying sediment (Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales (> 20%). Pond water in which E. prolifera-free was dominated by Rhodobacterales (58.19%), as well as aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in the sediment. In addition, the ecological functions of other dominant bacteria, such as Candidatus Aquiluna, Microcella spp., and Marivita spp., should be studied in depth. Overall, massive growth of E. prolifera will have serious effects on bacterial communities, and, thus, it will have an important impact on the environment. The novel findings in this study will be valuable for understanding green tides.
Project description:Direct hydrothermal conversion (HC) of macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera was conducted over the temperature range of 140-240 °C. At 160 °C, monosaccharides and small molecular acids began to generate. A high yield (18.8%) of monosaccharides was obtained at 180 °C, whereas 29.6% of small molecular organic acids was attained at 200 °C. Formic acid (FA) was then employed as a catalyst, which could selectively catalyze the conversion of hemicellulose at low temperature (94.1%, 140 °C). Rhamnose (45.2%) based on the mass of carbohydrates in E. prolifera was produced by the catalysis of 0.7 mL of FA (160 °C, 60 min, 1 g of biomass loading). A low ratio of biomass amount to water was beneficial to the solution of water-soluble components of hemicellulose in E. prolifera to get high yields to monosaccharides. HC showed promise to be an applicable and efficient method in the treatment of E. prolifera with high conversion of carbohydrates.
Project description:Background:Ulva prolifera extract contains a variety of functional active substances. Whether these substances had any beneficial effects on the small intestine of weaned piglets under oxidative stress remained unknown. Method:We explored the effects of U. prolifera extract on oxidative stress and related mechanisms in weaned piglets and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Results:U. prolifera extract was found to mainly consist of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. U. prolifera extract increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, while it decreased malondialdehyde content, in the serum of weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, U. prolifera extract increased mRNA expression of SOD and catalase, as well as the intestinal expression of nuclear NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, U. prolifera extract decreased reactive oxygen species and improved mitochondrial respiration in IPEC-J2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. However, AMPK inhibition did not affect nuclear Nrf2 expression and only partially affected the effects of U. prolifera extract on oxidative stress. Conclusion:We suggest that U. prolifera extract alleviates oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling, but independent of AMPK pathway in weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide. These results shed new insight into the potential applications of U. prolifera extract as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-induced intestinal diseases.
Project description:Natural population recovery of Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis and their hybrid, Acropora prolifera, have fluctuated significantly after their Caribbean-wide, disease-induced mass mortality in the early 1980s. Even though significant recovery has been observed in a few localities, recurrent disease outbreaks, bleaching, storm damage, local environmental deterioration, algae smothering, predation, low sexual recruitment and low survivorship have affected the expected, quick recovery of these weedy species. In this study, the status of three recovering populations of A. cervicornis and two of A. prolifera were assessed over one year using coral growth and mortality metrics, and changes in their associated algae and fish/invertebrate communities in three localities in the La Parguera Natural Reserve (LPNR), southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Five branches were tagged in each of 29, medium size (1-2 m in diameter) A. cervicornis and 18 A. prolifera colonies in the Media Luna, Mario and San Cristobal reefs off LPNR. Branches were measured monthly, together with observations to evaluate associated disease(s), algae accumulation and predation. A. cervicornis grew faster [3.1 ± 0.44 cm/month (= 37.2 cm/y)] compared to A. prolifera [2.6 ± 0.41 cm/month (= 31.2 cm/y)], and growth was significantly higher during Winter-Spring compared to Summer-Fall for both taxa (3.5 ± 0.58 vs. 0.53 ± 0.15 cm/month in A. cervicornis, and 2.43 ± 0.71 vs. 0.27 ± 0.20 cm/month in A. prolifera, respectively). Algal accumulation was only observed in A. cervicornis, and was higher during Spring-Summer compared to Fall-Winter (6.1 ± 0.91 cm/month and 3.8 ± 0.29 cm/month, respectively, (PERMANOVA, df = 2, MS = 10.2, p = 0.37)). Mortality associated with white band disease, algae smothering and fish/invertebrate predation was also higher in A. cervicornis and varied among colonies within sites, across sites and across season. The balance between tissue grow and mortality determines if colonies survive. This balance seems to be pushed to the high mortality side often by increasing frequency of high thermal anomalies, inducing bleaching and disease outbreaks and other factors, which have historically impacted the natural recovery of these taxa in the La Parguera Natural Reserve in Puerto Rico and possibly other areas in the region. Overall, results indicate variability in both growth and mortality rates in both taxa across localities and seasons, with A. cervicornis showing overall higher mortalities compared to A. prolifera.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carotenoids are widely distributed in plants and algae, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Carotenoid-related research has mostly focused on model species, and there is a lack of data on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in U. prolifera that is the main species leading to green tide, a harmful plague of floating green algae. RESULTS:The carotenoid content of U. prolifera samples, that is the main species leading to green tide, a harmful plague of floating green algae at different temperatures revealed that its terpenoid was highest in the samples subjected to high temperature at 28?°C (H), followed by the samples subjected to low temperature at 12?°C (L). Its terpenoid was lowest in the samples subjected to medium temperature at 20?°C (M). We conducted transcriptome sequencing (148.5 million raw reads and 49,676 unigenes in total) of samples that were subjected to different temperatures to study the carotenoid biosynthesis of U. prolifera. There were 1125-3164 significant differentially expressed genes between L, M and H incubation temperatures, of which 11-672 genes were upregulated and 453-3102 genes were downregulated. A total of 3164 genes were significantly differentially expressed between H and M, of which 62 genes were upregulated and 3102 genes were downregulated. A total of 2669 significant differentially expressed genes were observed between L and H, of which 11 genes were upregulated and 2658 genes were downregulated. A total of 13 genes were identified to be involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in U. prolifera, and the expression levels of the majority were highest at H and lowest at M of incubation temperature. Both the carotenoid concentrations and the expression of the analysed genes were lowest in the normal temperature group, while low temperature and high temperature seemed to activate the biosynthesis of carotenoids in U. prolifera. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, transcriptome sequencing provided critical information for understanding the accumulation of carotenoids and will serve as an important reference for the study of other metabolic pathways in U. prolifera.
Project description:Background:Ulva prolifera belongs to green macroalgae and is the dominant species of green tide. It is distributed worldwide and is therefore subject to high-temperature stress during the growth process. However, the adaptation mechanisms of the response of U. prolifera to high temperatures have not been clearly investigated yet. Methods:In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling was applied in combination with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to conduct comparative proteomic analysis of the response of U. prolifera to high-temperature stress and to elucidate the involvement of this response in adaptation mechanisms. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) of U. prolifera under high temperature (denote UpHT) compared with the control (UpC) were identified. Bioinformatic analyses including GO analysis, pathway analysis, and pathway enrichment analysis was performed to analyse the key metabolic pathways that underlie the thermal tolerance mechanism through protein networks. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to validate selected proteins. Results:In the present study, 1223 DEPs were identified under high temperature compared with the control, which included 790 up-regulated and 433 down-regulated proteins. The high-temperature stimulus mainly induced the expression of glutathione S-transferase, heat shock protein, ascorbate peroxidase, manganese superoxide dismutase, ubiquitin-related protein, lhcSR, rubisco activase, serine/threonine protein kinase 2, adenylate kinase, Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK), disease resistance protein EDS1, metacaspase type II, NDPK2a, 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, ubiquinone oxidoreductase, ATP synthase subunit, SnRK2s, and cytochrome P450. The down-regulated proteins were photosynthesis-related proteins, glutathione reductase, catalase-peroxidase, thioredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, PP2C, and carbon fixation-related proteins. Furthermore, biological index analysis indicated that protein content and SOD activity decreased; the value of Fv/Fm dropped to the lowest point after culture for 96 h. However, APX activity and MDA content increased under high temperature. Conclusion:The present study implied an increase in proteins that were associated with the stress response, oxidative phosphorylation, the cytokinin signal transduction pathway, the abscisic acid signal transduction pathway, and the glutathione metabolism pathway. Proteins that were associated with photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthesis organisms, and the photosynthesis antenna protein pathway were decreased. These pathways played a pivotal role in high temperature regulation. These novel proteins provide a good starting point for further research into their functions using genetic or other approaches. These findings significantly improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the tolerance of algae to high-temperature stress.
Project description:Enteromorpha prolifera (E. prolifera), one of the main algae genera for green tide, significantly influences both the coastal ecological environment and seawater quality. How to effectively utilize this waste as reproducible raw resource with credible application mechanism are urgent environmental issues to be solved. Herein, E. prolifera was converted to attractive fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) by one-pot green hydrothermal process. The purity and quantum yields for the as-prepared CNDs can be enhanced upon the post-treatment of ethanol sedimentation. The CNDs can be well dispersed in aqueous medium with uniform spherical morphology, narrow size distribution and average size of 2.75?±?0.12?nm. The ease synthesis and relatively high quantum yields of the CNDs make E. prolifera inexpensive benefit to the human and nature, such as applications in efficient cell imaging and fiber staining. Furthermore, it was discovered that the fluorescence intensity of the CNDs can be selectively quenched upon Fe3+ addition, which can be used for specific sensitive assay and removal of Fe3+ in aqueous medium. More importantly, it was reasonably proposed that the quenching was resulted from the synergistic effects of CNDs aggregation and Fe3+-CNDs charge-transfer transitions due to the coordination interactions between Fe3+ and the oxygenous groups on the CNDs.
Project description:Ulva prolifera is a green macroalgae with an extremely high growth rate that can accumulate biomass with considerable protein content. To set up an available seaweed expression system, a prior step is to isolate endogenous and strong constitutive promoters. For this reason, the full-length genomic actin1 gene from U. prolifera (Upactin1) was cloned and its 5' flanking sequence was obtained by genome walking. The Upactin1 open reading frame consisted of 1134 nucleotides encoding 377 amino acid residues. Besides 4 exons and 3 introns in the coding region, an extra leader intron was identified in the 5' untranslated region. According to quantitative GUS assays based on transient expression, the promoter activity of the Upactin1 5' flanking region was found to be several times higher than that of the widely-used cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) in all tested species of Ulva. In addition, precise deletion of the leader intron led to a significant decrease of promoter strength in U. prolifera, and almost entire loss of strength in U. linza and U. pertusa. To our knowledge, this is the first report to prove function of a leader intron in algae. The 5' flanking region of Upactin1 was shown to be a much stronger promoter than the foreign CaMV35S, and its activity was highly dependent on the presence of the leader intron. We propose that the Upactin1 promoter could serve as an endogenous and strong constitutive element for genetic engineering of U. prolifera.
Project description:The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3(-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO4(3-)), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3(-) and NH4(+)) and phosphorus (PO4(3-)). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea.