Project description:Pseudomonas taiwanensis strain SJ9 is a caprolactam degrader, isolated from industrial wastewater in South Korea and considered to have the potential for caprolactam bioremediation. The genome of this strain is approximately 6.2 Mb (G+C content, 61.75%) with 6,010 protein-coding sequences (CDS), of which 46% are assigned to recognized functional genes. This draft genome of strain SJ9 will provide insights into the genetic basis of its caprolactam-degradation ability.
Project description:Pseudomonas taiwanensis is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic bacterium that exhibits insecticidal activity toward agricultural pests Plutella xylostella, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura, Trichoplusia ni and Drosophila melanogaster. Oral infection with different concentrations (OD?=?0.5 to 2) of wild-type P. taiwanensis resulted in insect mortality rates that were not significantly different (92.7%, 96.4% and 94.5%). The TccC protein, a component of the toxin complex (Tc), plays an essential role in the insecticidal activity of P. taiwanensis. The ?tccC mutant strain of P. taiwanensis, which has a knockout mutation in the tccC gene, only induced 42.2% mortality in P. xylostella, even at a high bacterial dose (OD?=?2.0). TccC protein was cleaved into two fragments, an N-terminal fragment containing an Rhs-like domain and a C-terminal fragment containing a Glt symporter domain and a TraT domain, which might contribute to antioxidative stress activity and defense against macrophagosis, respectively. Interestingly, the primary structure of the C-terminal region of TccC in P. taiwanensis is unique among pathogens. Membrane localization of the C-terminal fragment of TccC was proven by flow cytometry. Sonicated pellets of P. taiwanensis ?tccC strain had lower toxicity against the Sf9 insect cell line and P. xylostella larvae than the wild type. We also found that infection of Sf9 and LD652Y-5d cell lines with P. taiwanensis induced apoptotic cell death. Further, natural oral infection by P. taiwanensis triggered expression of host programmed cell death-related genes JNK-2 and caspase-3.
Project description:Pseudomonas is the bacterial genus of Gram-negative bacteria with the highest number of recognized species. It is divided phylogenetically into three lineages and at least 11 groups of species. The Pseudomonas putida group of species is one of the most versatile and best studied. It comprises 15 species with validly published names. As a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project, we present the genome sequences of the type strains of five species included in this group: Pseudomonas monteilii (DSM 14164T), Pseudomonas mosselii (DSM 17497T), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida (DSM 15088T), Pseudomonas taiwanensis (DSM 21245T) and Pseudomonas vranovensis (DSM 16006T). These strains represent species of environmental and also of clinical interest due to their pathogenic properties against humans and animals. Some strains of these species promote plant growth or act as plant pathogens. Their genome sizes are among the largest in the group, ranging from 5.3 to 6.3 Mbp. In addition, the genome sequences of the type strains in the Pseudomonas taxonomy were analysed via genome-wide taxonomic comparisons of ANIb, gANI and GGDC values among 130 Pseudomonas strains classified within the group. The results demonstrate that at least 36 genomic species can be delineated within the P. putida phylogenetic group of species.
Project description:The application of whole cells as biocatalysts is often limited by the toxicity of organic solvents, which constitute interesting substrates/products or can be used as a second phase for in situ product removal and as tools to control multistep biocatalysis. Solvent-tolerant bacteria, especially Pseudomonas strains, are proposed as promising hosts to overcome such limitations due to their inherent solvent tolerance mechanisms. However, potential industrial applications suffer from tedious, unproductive adaptation processes, phenotypic variability, and instable solvent-tolerant phenotypes. In this study, genes described to be involved in solvent tolerance were identified in Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120, and adaptive solvent tolerance was proven by cultivation in the presence of 1% (vol/vol) toluene. Deletion of ttgV, coding for the specific transcriptional repressor of solvent efflux pump TtgGHI gene expression, led to constitutively solvent-tolerant mutants of P. taiwanensis VLB120 and VLB120ΔC. Interestingly, the increased amount of solvent efflux pumps enhanced not only growth in the presence of toluene and styrene but also the biocatalytic performance in terms of stereospecific styrene epoxidation, although proton-driven solvent efflux is expected to compete with the styrene monooxygenase for metabolic energy. Compared to that of the P. taiwanensis VLB120ΔC parent strain, the maximum specific epoxidation activity of P. taiwanensis VLB120ΔCΔttgV doubled to 67 U/g of cells (dry weight). This study shows that solvent tolerance mechanisms, e.g., the solvent efflux pump TtgGHI, not only allow for growth in the presence of organic compounds but can also be used as tools to improve redox biocatalysis involving organic solvents.
Project description:Bio-conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to high-value products offers numerous benefits; however, its development is hampered by chemical inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process. A better understanding of how microbes naturally respond to those inhibitors is valuable in the process of designing microorganisms with improved tolerance. Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 is a natively tolerant strain that utilizes a wide range of carbon sources including pentose and hexose sugars. To this end, we investigated the tolerance and metabolic response of P. taiwanensis VLB120 towards biomass hydrolysate-derived inhibitors including organic acids (acetic acid, formic acid, and levulinic acid), furans (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), and phenols (vanillin).The inhibitory effect of the tested compounds varied with respect to lag phase, specific growth rate, and biomass yield compared to the control cultures grown under the same conditions without addition of inhibitors. However, P. taiwanensis was able to oxidize vanillin and furfural to vanillic acid and 2-furoic acid, respectively. Vanillic acid was further metabolized, whereas 2-furoic acid was secreted outside the cells and remained in the fermentation broth without further conversion. Acetic acid and formic acid were completely consumed from the fermentation broth, while concentration of levulinic acid remained constant throughout the fermentation process. Analysis of free intracellular metabolites revealed varying levels when P. taiwanensis VLB120 was exposed to inhibitory compounds. This resulted in increased levels of ATP to export inhibitors from the cell and NADPH/NADP ratio that provides reducing power to deal with the oxidative stress caused by the inhibitors. Thus, adequate supply of these metabolites is essential for the survival and reproduction of P. taiwanensis in the presence of biomass-derived inhibitors.In this study, the tolerance and metabolic response of P. taiwanensis VLB120 to biomass hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was investigated. P. taiwanensis VLB120 showed high tolerance towards biomass hydrolysate-derived inhibitors compared to most wild-type microbes reported in the literature. It adopts different resistance mechanisms, including detoxification, efflux, and repair, which require additional energy and resources. Thus, targeting redox and energy metabolism in strain engineering may be a successful strategy to overcome inhibition during biomass hydrolysate conversion and lead to development of more robust strains.
Project description:The attachment strength of biofilm microbes is responsible for the adherence of the cells to surfaces and thus is a critical parameter in biofilm processes. In tubular microreactors, aqueous-air segmented flow ensures an optimal oxygen supply and prevents excessive biofilm growth. However, organisms growing in these systems depend on an adaptation phase of several days, before mature and strong biofilms can develop. This is due to strong interfacial forces. In this study, a hyperadherent mutant of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120?CeGFP possessing an engineered cyclic diguanylate metabolism, was applied to a continuous biofilm process for the production of (S)-styrene oxide. Cells of the mutant P. taiwanensis VLB120?CeGFP ?04710, showing the same specific activity as the wild type, adhered substantially stronger to the substratum. Adaptation to the high interfacial forces was not necessary in these cases. Thereby, 40% higher final product concentrations were achieved and the maximal volumetric productivity of the parent strain was significantly surpassed by P. taiwanensis VLB120?CeGFP ?04710. Applying mutants with strong adhesion in biofilm-based catalysis opens the door to biological process control in future applications of catalytic biofilms using other industrially relevant strains.
Project description:Microbial biocatalysis represents a promising alternative for the production of a variety of aromatic chemicals, where microorganisms are engineered to convert a renewable feedstock under mild production conditions into a valuable chemical building block. This study describes the rational engineering of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 toward accumulation of L-phenylalanine and its conversion into the chemical building block t-cinnamate. We recently reported rational engineering of Pseudomonas toward L-tyrosine accumulation by the insertion of genetic modifications that allow both enhanced flux and prevent aromatics degradation. Building on this knowledge, three genes encoding for enzymes involved in the degradation of L-phenylalanine were deleted to allow accumulation of 2.6 mM of L-phenylalanine from 20 mM glucose. The amino acid was subsequently converted into the aromatic model compound t-cinnamate by the expression of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The engineered strains produced t-cinnamate with yields of 23 and 39% Cmol Cmol-1 from glucose and glycerol, respectively. Yields were improved up to 48% Cmol Cmol-1 from glycerol when two enzymes involved in the shikimate pathway were additionally overexpressed, however with negative impact on strain performance and reproducibility. Production titers were increased in fed-batch fermentations, in which 33.5 mM t-cinnamate were produced solely from glycerol, in a mineral medium without additional complex supplements. The aspect of product toxicity was targeted by the utilization of a streamlined, genome-reduced strain, which improves upon the already high tolerance of P. taiwanensis VLB120 toward t-cinnamate.
Project description:Low temperatures and high pH generally inhibit the biodenitrification. Thus, it is important to explore the psychrotrophic and alkali-resisting microorganism for degradation of nitrogen. This research was mainly focused on the identification of a psychrotrophic strain and preliminary explored its denitrification characteristics. The new strain J was isolated using the bromothymol blue solid medium and identified as Pseudomonas taiwanensis on the basis of morphology and phospholipid fatty acid as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, which is further testified to work efficiently for removing nitrate from wastewater at low temperature circumstances. This is the first report that Pseudomonas taiwanensis possessed excellent tolerance to low temperature, with 15°C as its optimum and 5°C as viable. The Pseudomonas taiwanensis showed unusual ability of aerobic denitrification with the nitrate removal efficiencies of 100% at 15°C and 51.61% at 5°C. Single factor experiments showed that the optimal conditions for denitrification were glucose as carbon source, 15°C, shaking speed 150 r/min, C/N 15, pH ≥ 7, and incubation quantity 2.0 × 106 CFU/mL. The nitrate and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 100% and 93.79% at 15°C when glucose is served as carbon source. These results suggested that strain J had aerobic denitrification ability, as well as the notable ability to tolerate the low temperature and high pH.
Project description:Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion.
Project description:Obligate aerobic organisms rely on a functional electron transport chain for energy conservation and NADH oxidation. Because of this essential requirement, the genes of this pathway are likely constitutively and highly expressed to avoid a cofactor imbalance and energy shortage under fluctuating environmental conditions. We here investigated the essentiality of the three NADH dehydrogenases of the respiratory chain of the obligate aerobe Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 and the impact of the knockouts of corresponding genes on its physiology and metabolism. While a mutant lacking all three NADH dehydrogenases seemed to be nonviable, the single or double knockout mutant strains displayed no, or only a weak, phenotype. Only the mutant deficient in both type 2 dehydrogenases showed a clear phenotype with biphasic growth behavior and a strongly reduced growth rate in the second phase. In-depth analyses of the metabolism of the generated mutants, including quantitative physiological experiments, transcript analysis, proteomics, and enzyme activity assays revealed distinct responses to type 2 and type 1 dehydrogenase deletions. An overall high metabolic flexibility enables P. taiwanensis to cope with the introduced genetic perturbations and maintain stable phenotypes, likely by rerouting of metabolic fluxes. This metabolic adaptability has implications for biotechnological applications. While the phenotypic robustness is favorable in large-scale applications with inhomogeneous conditions, the possible versatile redirecting of carbon fluxes upon genetic interventions can thwart metabolic engineering efforts.IMPORTANCE While Pseudomonas has the capability for high metabolic activity and the provision of reduced redox cofactors important for biocatalytic applications, exploitation of this characteristic might be hindered by high, constitutive activity of and, consequently, competition with the NADH dehydrogenases of the respiratory chain. The in-depth analysis of NADH dehydrogenase mutants of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 presented here provides insight into the phenotypic and metabolic response of this strain to these redox metabolism perturbations. This high degree of metabolic flexibility needs to be taken into account for rational engineering of this promising biotechnological workhorse toward a host with a controlled and efficient supply of redox cofactors for product synthesis.