Project description:Introduction: The ideal ventilation strategy for patients with massive brain damage requires better elucidation. We hypothesized that in the presence of massive brain injury, a ventilation strategy using low (6 mL/kg) tidal volume (VT) ventilation with open lung positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the minimal static elastance of the respiratory system (LVT/OLPEEP), attenuate the impact of massive brain damage on gas-exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung histology and whole genome alterations compared with high (12 mL/kg) VT and low PEEP ventilation (HVT/LPEEP). Methods: Twenty-eight adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) no brain damage (NBD) with LVT/OLPEEP; 2) NBD with HVT/LPEEP; 3) brain damage (BD) with LVT/OLPEEP; and 4) BD with HVT/LPEEP. All animals were mechanically ventilated for six hours. Brain damage was induced by an inflated balloon catheter into the epidural space. Hemodynamics was recorded and blood gas analysis was performed hourly. At the end of the experiment, respiratory system mechanics and lung histology were analysed. Whole genome analysis was performed using Affimetrix gene chips and confirmatory real-time PCR. Results: In NBD, both LVT/OLPEEP and HVT/LPEEP did not affect arterial blood gases, as well as whole genome expression changes and real-time PCR. In BD, LVT/OLPEEP, compared to HVT/LPEEP, reduced lung damage according to histology, genome analysis and real-time PCR with decreased interleukin (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and angiopoietin-4 expressions. LVT/OLPEEP compared to HVT/LPEEP improved overall survival. Conclusions: In BD, LVT/OLPEEP minimizes lung morpho-functional changes and inflammation compared to HVT/LPEEP. LVT/OLPEEP might represent a suitable ventilatory strategy in massive brain damage. 24 Wistar rats - lung samples, 4 groups, 1. non-braindamaged/braindead high tidal volume ventilation, 2. non-braindamaged/braindead best PEEP ventilation, 3. Braindamaged/braindead high tidal volume ventilation, 4. Braindamaged/braindead best PEEP ventilation
Project description:In the present study we seek to identify changes in lung gene expression under mechanical ventilation in uninjured as well as acutely and chronically injured lungs. A standard volume-controlled lung-protective ventilatory protocol is compared to a concept of mechanical ventilation using variable tidal volumes. Overall design: Comparison of mRNA profiles in whole-lung samples after mechanical ventilation with constant or variable tidal volumes
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The ideal ventilation strategy for patients with massive brain damage requires better elucidation. We hypothesized that in the presence of massive brain injury, a ventilation strategy using low (6 milliliters per kilogram ideal body weight) tidal volume (V(T)) ventilation with open lung positive end-expiratory pressure (LV(T)/OLPEEP) set according to the minimal static elastance of the respiratory system, attenuates the impact of massive brain damage on gas-exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung histology and whole genome alterations compared with high (12 milliliters per kilogram ideal body weight) V(T) and low positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation (HV(T)/LPEEP). METHODS: In total, 28 adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) no brain damage (NBD) with LV(T)/OLPEEP; 2) NBD with HV(T)/LPEEP; 3) brain damage (BD) with LV(T)/OLPEEP; and 4) BD with HV9T)/LPEEP. All animals were mechanically ventilated for six hours. Brain damage was induced by an inflated balloon catheter into the epidural space. Hemodynamics was recorded and blood gas analysis was performed hourly. At the end of the experiment, respiratory system mechanics and lung histology were analyzed. Genome wide gene expression profiling and subsequent confirmatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for selected genes were performed. RESULTS: In NBD, both LV(T)/OLPEEP and HV(T)/LPEEP did not affect arterial blood gases, as well as whole genome expression changes and real-time qPCR. In BD, LVT/OLPEEP, compared to HV(T)/LPEEP, improved oxygenation, reduced lung damage according to histology, genome analysis and real-time qPCR with decreased interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC)-1 and angiopoietin-4 expressions. LV(T)/OLPEEP compared to HV(T)/LPEEP improved overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: In BD, LV(T)/OLPEEP minimizes lung morpho-functional changes and inflammation compared to HV(T)/LPEEP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>High-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation used in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) can induce the release of inflammatory cytokines, as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of alveolar epithelial and endothelial barriers. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to improve ALI in mice, but the mechanisms regulating the interactions between mechanical ventilation and iPSCs are not fully elucidated. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and NF-?B repressing factor (NKRF) have been proposed to modulate the neutrophil activation involved in ALI. Thus, we hypothesized intravenous injection of iPSCs or iPSC-derived conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) would decrease high-tidal-volume ventilation-induced neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress, and MIP-2 production through NF-?B/NKRF pathways.<h4>Methods</h4>Male C57BL/6 mice, aged between 6 and 8 weeks, weighing between 20 and 25 g, were exposed to high-tidal-volume (30 ml/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for 1 to 4 h after 5×10(7) cells/kg mouse iPSCs or iPSC-CM administration. Nonventilated mice were used as control groups.<h4>Results</h4>High-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation induced the increases of integration of iPSCs into the injured lungs of mice, microvascular permeability, neutrophil infiltration, malondialdehyde, MIP-2 production, and NF-?B and NKRF activation. Lung injury indices including inflammation, lung edema, ultrastructure pathologic changes and functional gas exchange impairment induced by mechanical ventilation were attenuated with administration of iPSCs or iPSC-CM, which was mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B activity with SN50 or NKRF expression with NKRF short interfering RNA.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that iPSC-based therapy attenuates high-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury, at least partly, through inhibition of NF-?B/NKRF pathways. Notably, the conditioned medium of iPSCs revealed beneficial effects equal to those of iPSCs.
Project description:One of the few interventions to demonstrate improved outcomes for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure is reducing tidal volumes when using mechanical ventilation, often termed lung protective ventilation. Veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (vv-ECCO2R) can facilitate reducing tidal volumes. pRotective vEntilation with veno-venouS lung assisT (REST) is a randomised, allocation concealed, controlled, open, multicentre pragmatic trial to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation facilitated by vv-ECCO2R in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure will be randomly allocated to receive either vv-ECCO2R and lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation or standard care with stratification by recruitment centre. There is a need for a large randomised controlled trial to establish whether vv-ECCO2R in acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure can allow the use of a more protective lung ventilation strategy and is associated with improved patient outcomes.
Project description:To test the hypothesis that preconditioning animals with amifostine improves ventilator-induced lung injury via induction of antioxidant defense enzymes. Mechanical ventilation at high tidal volume induces reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in the lung, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. Amifostine attenuates oxidative stress and improves lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by acting as a direct scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study tested effects of chronic amifostine administration on parameters of oxidative stress, lung barrier function, and inflammation associated with ventilator-induced lung injury.Randomized and controlled laboratory investigation in mice and cell culture.University laboratory.C57BL/6J mice.Mice received once-daily dosing with amifostine (10-100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) 3 days consecutively before high tidal volume ventilation (30 mL/kg, 4 hrs) at day 4. Pulmonary endothelial cell cultures were exposed to pathologic cyclic stretching (18% equibiaxial stretch) and thrombin in a previously verified two-hit model of in vitro ventilator-induced lung injury.Three-day amifostine preconditioning before high tidal volume attenuated high tidal volume-induced protein and cell accumulation in the alveolar space judged by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, decreased Evans Blue dye extravasation into the lung parenchyma, decreased biochemical parameters of high tidal volume-induced tissue oxidative stress, and inhibited high tidal volume-induced activation of redox-sensitive stress kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B inflammatory cascade. These protective effects of amifostine were associated with increased superoxide dismutase 2 expression and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities in the animal and endothelial cell culture models of ventilator-induced lung injury.Amifostine preconditioning activates lung tissue antioxidant cell defense mechanisms and may be a promising strategy for alleviation of ventilator-induced lung injury in critically ill patients subjected to extended mechanical ventilation.
Project description:Mechanical ventilation is the type of organ support most widely provided in the intensive care unit. However, this form of support does not constitute a cure for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as it mainly works by buying time for the lungs to heal while contributing to the maintenance of vital gas exchange. Moreover, it can further damage the lung, leading to the development of a particular form of lung injury named ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Experimental evidence accumulated over the last 30 years highlighted the factors associated with an injurious form of mechanical ventilation. The present paper illustrates the physiological effects of delivering a tidal volume to the lungs of patients with ARDS, and suggests an approach to tidal volume selection. The relationship between tidal volume and the development of VILI, the so called volotrauma, will be reviewed. The still actual suggestion of a lung-protective ventilatory strategy based on the use of low tidal volumes scaled to the predicted body weight (PBW) will be presented, together with newer strategies such as the use of airway driving pressure as a surrogate for the amount of ventilatable lung tissue or the concept of strain, i.e., the ratio between the tidal volume delivered relative to the resting condition, that is the functional residual capacity (FRC). An ultra-low tidal volume strategy with the use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) will be presented and discussed. Eventually, the role of other ventilator-related parameters in the generation of VILI will be considered (namely, plateau pressure, airway driving pressure, respiratory rate (RR), inspiratory flow), and the promising unifying framework of mechanical power will be presented.
Project description:Mechanical ventilation is necessary for patients with acute respiratory failure, but can cause or propagate lung injury. We previously identified cyclooxygenase-2 as a candidate gene in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury. Our objective was to determine the role of cyclooxygenase-2 in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury and the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on lung inflammation and barrier disruption. Mice were mechanically ventilated at low and high tidal volumes, in the presence or absence of pharmacologic cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibition with 3-(4-methylsulphonylphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-trifluoromethylisoxazole (CAY10404). Lung injury was assessed using markers of alveolar-capillary leakage and lung inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and activity were measured by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and lung/plasma prostanoid analysis, and tissue sections were analyzed for cyclooxygenase-2 staining by immunohistochemistry. High tidal volume ventilation induced lung injury, significantly increasing both lung leakage and lung inflammation relative to control and low tidal volume ventilation. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation significantly induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and activity, both in the lungs and systemically, compared with control mice and low tidal volume mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections localized cyclooxygenase-2 expression to monocytes and macrophages in the alveoli. The pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 with CAY10404 significantly decreased cyclooxygenase activity and attenuated lung injury in mice ventilated at high tidal volume, attenuating barrier disruption, tissue inflammation, and inflammatory cell signaling. This study demonstrates the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by mechanical ventilation, and suggests that the therapeutic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 may attenuate ventilator-induced acute lung injury.
Project description:Addition of CO2 to the inspired gas can ameliorate lung injury during high tidal volume mechanical ventilation in animal models. Although some effects of hypercapnia on physiology and cell signaling have been characterized, we hypothesized that assessment of genome-wide gene expression patterns would reveal novel pathways of protection. We subjected male C57BL/6J mice to non-injurious low stretch (tidal vol = 10 mL/kg, PEEP = 2 cm H2O) or injurious high stretch (tidal volume approx 35 mL/kg, PEEP = 0 cm H2O) mechanical ventilation for 3 hours under normocapnia (FiCO2 = 0) or hypercapnia (FiCO2 = 0.12). Overall design: Lung RNA was extracted from mice randomized to the following groups: non-ventilated (n = 5); low stretch normocapnia (n = 5); low stretch hypercapnia (n = 5); high stretch normocapnia (n = 10); high stretch hypercapnia (n = 10). Each RNA sample was analyzed on a separate microarray chip (no pooled samples).
Project description:The goal of mechanical ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is to support adequate gas exchange without harming the lungs. How patients are mechanically ventilated can significantly impact their ultimate outcomes.This review focuses on emerging evidence regarding strategies for mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure including: low tidal volume ventilation in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), novel ventilator modes as alternatives to low tidal volume ventilation, adjunctive strategies that may enhance recovery in ARDS, the use of lung-protective strategies in patients without ARDS, rescue therapies in refractory hypoxemia, and an evidence-based approach to weaning from mechanical ventilation.Once a patient is intubated and mechanically ventilated, low tidal volume ventilation remains the best strategy in ARDS. Adjunctive therapies in ARDS include a conservative fluid management strategy, as well as neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning in moderate-to-severe disease. There is also emerging evidence that a lung-protective strategy may benefit non-ARDS patients. For patients with refractory hypoxemia, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be considered. Once the patient demonstrates signs of recovery, the best approach to liberation from mechanical ventilation involves daily spontaneous breathing trials and protocolized assessment of readiness for extubation.Prompt recognition of ARDS and use of lung-protective ventilation, as well as evidence-based adjunctive therapies, remain the cornerstones of caring for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. In the absence of contraindications, it is reasonable to consider lung-protective ventilation in non-ARDS patients as well, though the evidence supporting this practice is less conclusive.