Project description:Male C57BL/6J mice raised on high fat diet (HFD) become prediabetic and develop insulin resistance and sensory neuropathy. The same mice given low doses of streptozotocin are a model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), developing hyperglycemia, severe insulin resistance and diabetic peripheral neuropathy involving sensory and motor neurons. Because of suggestions that increased NAD(+) metabolism might address glycemic control and be neuroprotective, we treated prediabetic and T2D mice with nicotinamide riboside (NR) added to HFD. NR improved glucose tolerance, reduced weight gain, liver damage and the development of hepatic steatosis in prediabetic mice while protecting against sensory neuropathy. In T2D mice, NR greatly reduced non-fasting and fasting blood glucose, weight gain and hepatic steatosis while protecting against diabetic neuropathy. The neuroprotective effect of NR could not be explained by glycemic control alone. Corneal confocal microscopy was the most sensitive measure of neurodegeneration. This assay allowed detection of the protective effect of NR on small nerve structures in living mice. Quantitative metabolomics established that hepatic NADP(+) and NADPH levels were significantly degraded in prediabetes and T2D but were largely protected when mice were supplemented with NR. The data justify testing of NR in human models of obesity, T2D and associated neuropathies.
Project description:Autoreactive memory CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but it is not yet known how the clonotypic composition and TCR? repertoire of the memory CD4(+) T cell compartment changes during the transition from prediabetes to diabetes. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the TCR? repertoire of sorted islet-infiltrating memory CD4(+)CD44(high) T cells in 10-week-old prediabetic and recently diabetic NOD mice. We show that most clonotypes of islet-infiltrating CD4(+)CD44(high) T cells were rare, but high-frequency clonotypes were significantly more common in diabetic than in prediabetic mice. Moreover, although the CD4(+)CD44(high) TCR? repertoires were highly diverse at both stages of disease development, dominant use of TRBV1 (V?2), TRBV13-3 (V?8.1), and TRBV19 (V?6) was evident in both prediabetic and diabetic mice. Our findings strongly suggest that therapeutic targeting of cells specifically expressing the dominant TCR? might reduce pancreatic infiltration in prediabetic mice and attenuate the progression to diabetes.
Project description:When the microfloral composition deteriorates, it triggers low-level chronic inflammation associated with several lifestyle-related diseases including obesity and diabetic mellitus. Fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found to differ in gastrointestinal diseases as well as intestinal infection. In this study, to evaluate a potential association between the pathogenesis of lifestyle-related diseases and VOCs in the intestinal tract, fecal VOCs from obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice (KK) or controls (C57BL/6J mice; BL) fed a normal or high fat diet (NFD or HFD) were investigated using headspace sampler-GC-EI-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) of fecal VOC profiles clearly separated the experimental groups depending on the mouse lineage (KK vs BL) and the diet type (NFD vs HFD). 16?s rRNA sequencing revealed that the PCA distribution of VOCs was in parallel with the microfloral composition. We identified that some volatile metabolites including n-alkanals (nonanal and octanal), acetone and phenol were significantly increased in the HFD and/or KK groups. Additionally, these volatile metabolites induced proinflammatory activity in the RAW264 murine macrophage cell line indicating these bioactive metabolites might trigger low-level chronic inflammation. These results suggest that proinflammatory VOCs detected in HFD-fed and/or diabetic model mice might be novel noninvasive diagnosis biomarkers for diabetes.
Project description:Most herbal polysaccharides possess multiple benefits against metabolic disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, male C57BL/6J mice were fed with chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) supplementation, and gut microbial profile and metabolite profile were studied by metagenomic sequencing and untargeted metabolomics, respectively. APS was effective in alleviating HFD-induced metabolic disorders, with the alteration of gut microbiota composition and function. A total of 188 species, which mainly from Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla, and 36 metabolites were markedly changed by HFD and revered by APS. Additionally, the altered glutathione metabolism and purine metabolism pathways were identified by both metagenomic function analysis and metabolite pathway enrichment analysis. Furthermore, the gut microbial alteration was associated with the changes of key intestinal metabolites. We found 31 and 20 species were correlated with purine metabolism and glutathione metabolism, respectively. Together, our results showed significant metagenomic and metabolomic changes after HFD feeding and APS intervention, revealed the potential correlation between gut microbial species and metabolites, and highlighted mechanisms of herb-derived polysaccharides by modulating gut microbiome and host metabolism underlying their benefits on metabolic disorders.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Dysregulated adipokine profiles contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, a common pathological alteration in cardiovascular disorders, is exaggerated in diabetes. However, it is unclear whether and how dysregulated adipokines may contribute to diabetic EC dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS:Serum C1q/TNF-Related Protein 5 (CTRP5) were determined in control/diabetes patients, and control/diabetic mice (high-fat diet, HFD). We observed for the first time that serum total CTRP5 was increased, high molecular weight (HMW) form was decreased, but the globular form (gCTRP5) was significantly increased in diabetic patients. These pathological alterations were reproduced in diabetic mice. To determine the pathological significance of increased gCTRP5 in diabetes, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro experiments were performed. Diabetic atherosclerosis and EC dysfunction were significantly attenuated by the in vivo administration of CTRP5 neutralization antibody (CTRP5Ab). EC apoptosis was significantly increased in diabetic EC (isolated from HFD animal aorta) or high glucose high lipid (HGHL) cultured HUVECs. These pathological alterations were further potentiated by gCTRP5 and attenuated by CTRP5Ab. Pathway specific discovery-driven approach revealed that Nox1 expression was one of the signaling molecules commonly activated by HFD, HGHL, and gCTRP5. Treatment with CTRP5Ab reversed HFD-induced Nox1 upregulation. Finally, Nox1siRNA was used to determine the causative role of Nox1 in gCTRP5 induced EC apoptosis in diabetes. Results showed that gCTRP5 activated the mitochondrial apoptotic signal of EC in diabetes, which was blocked by the silencing Nox1 gene. CONCLUSION:We demonstrated for the first time that gCTRP5 is a novel molecule contributing to diabetic vascular EC dysfunction through Nox1-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, suggesting that interventions blocking gCTRP5 may protect diabetic EC function, ultimately attenuate diabetic cardiovascular complications.
Project description:The gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune disorders associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that prebiotic treatment may significantly improve host health by modulating bacterial species related to the improvement of gut endocrine, barrier and immune functions. An analysis of the gut metagenome is needed to determine which bacterial functions and taxa are responsible for beneficial microbiota-host interactions upon nutritional intervention. We subjected mice to prebiotic (Pre) treatment under physiological (control diet: CT) and pathological conditions (high-fat diet: HFD) for 8 weeks and investigated the production of intestinal antimicrobial peptides and the gut microbiome. HFD feeding significantly decreased the expression of regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma (Reg3g) and phospholipase A2 group-II (PLA2g2) in the jejunum. Prebiotic treatment increased Reg3g expression (by ?50-fold) and improved intestinal homeostasis as suggested by the increase in the expression of intectin, a key protein involved in intestinal epithelial cell turnover. Deep metagenomic sequencing analysis revealed that HFD and prebiotic treatment significantly affected the gut microbiome at different taxonomic levels. Functional analyses based on the occurrence of clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) of proteins also revealed distinct profiles for the HFD, Pre, HFD-Pre and CT groups. Finally, the gut microbiota modulations induced by prebiotics counteracted HFD-induced inflammation and related metabolic disorders. Thus, we identified novel putative taxa and metabolic functions that may contribute to the development of or protection against the metabolic alterations observed during HFD feeding and HFD-Pre feeding.
Project description:Elafin is an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory protein. We hypothesize that elafin expression correlates with diabetes. Among non-diabetic and prediabetic groups, men have significantly higher serum elafin levels than women. Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have significantly lower serum elafin levels than men without T2DM. Serum elafin levels are inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels in men with T2DM, but not women with T2DM. Lentiviral elafin overexpression inhibited obesity, hyperglycemia, and liver steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated male mice. Elafin-overexpressing HFD-treated male mice had increased serum leptin levels, and serum exosomal miR181b-5p and miR219-5p expression. Transplantation of splenocytes and serum exosomes from elafin-overexpressing HFD-treated donor mice reduced food consumption and fat mass, and increased adipose tissue leptin mRNA expression in HFD-treated recipient mice. Elafin improved leptin sensitivity via reduced interferon-gamma expression and induced adipose leptin expression via increased miR181b-5p and miR219-5p expression. Subcutaneous and oral administration of modified elafin inhibited obesity, hyperglycemia, and liver steatosis in the HFD-treated mice. Circulating elafin levels are associated with hyperglycemia in men with T2DM. Elafin, via immune-derived miRNAs and cytokine, activates leptin sensitivity and expression that subsequently inhibit food consumption, obesity, hyperglycemia, and liver steatosis in HFD-treated male mice.
Project description:As early as one month of age, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice feature pancreatic infiltration of autoreactive T lymphocytes, which destruct insulin-producing beta cells, producing autoimmune diabetes mellitus (T1D) within eight months. Thus, we hypothesized that during the development of T1D, the transcriptional modulation of immune reactivity genes may occur as thymocytes mature into peripheral T lymphocytes. The transcriptome of thymocytes and peripheral CD3⁺ T lymphocytes from prediabetic or diabetic mice analyzed through microarray hybridizations identified 2,771 differentially expressed genes. Hierarchical clustering grouped mice according to age/T1D onset and genes according to their transcription profiling. The transcriptional activity of thymocytes developing into peripheral T lymphocytes revealed sequential participation of genes involved with CD4⁺/CD8⁺ T-cell differentiation (Themis), tolerance induction by Tregs (Foxp3), and apoptosis (Fasl) soon after T-cell activation (IL4), while the emergence of T1D coincided with the expression of cytotoxicity (Crtam) and inflammatory response genes (Tlr) by peripheral T lymphocytes.