Project description:A water sample from a noncontaminated site at the source of the Woluwe River (Belgium) was analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Pseudomonas isolates were identified by sequencing and analysis of the rpoD gene. Cultureindependent methods consisted of cloning and pyrosequencing of a Pseudomonas rpoD amplicon from total DNA extracted from the same sample and amplified with selective rpoD gene primers. Among a total of 14,540 reads, 6,228 corresponded to Pseudomonas rpoD gene sequences by a BLAST analysis in the NCBI database. The selection criteria for the reads were sequences longer than 400 bp, an average Q40 value greater than 25, and>85% identity with a Pseudomonas species. Of the 6,228 Pseudomonas rpoD sequences, 5,345 sequences met the established criteria for selection. Sequences were clustered by phylogenetic analysis and by use of the QIIME software package. Representative sequences of each cluster were assigned by BLAST analysis to a known Pseudomonas species when the identity with the type strain was greater than or equal to 96%. Twenty-six species distributed among 12 phylogenetic groups or subgroups within the genus were detected by pyrosequencing. Pseudomonas stutzeri, P. moraviensis, and P. simiae were the only cultured species not detected by pyrosequencing. The predominant phylogenetic group within the Pseudomonas genus was the P. fluorescens group, as determined by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. In all analyses, a high number of putative novel phylospecies was found: 10 were identified in the cultured strains and 246 were detected by pyrosequencing, indicating that the diversity of Pseudomonas species has not been fully described.
Project description:A collection of 611 Pseudomonas isolated from 14 sampling sites along the Danube River were identified previously by MALDI-TOF MS with the VITEK MS system and were grouped in 53 clusters by their main protein profiles. The strains were identified in the present study at the phylospecies level by rpoD gene sequencing. Partial sequences of the rpoD gene of 190 isolates representatives of all clusters were analyzed. Strains in the same MALDI-TOF cluster were grouped in the same phylospecies when they shared a minimum 95% similarity in their rpoD sequences. The sequenced strains were assigned to 34 known species (108 strains) and to 32 possible new species (82 strains). The 611 strains were identified at the phylospecies level combining both methods. Most strains were assigned to phylospecies in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic group of species. Special attention was given to 14 multidrug resistant strains that could not be assigned to any known Pseudomonas species and were considered environmental reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Coverage indices and rarefaction curves demonstrated that at least 50% of the Pseudomonas species in the Danube River able to grow in the isolation conditions have been identified at the species level. Main objectives were the confirmation of the correlation between the protein profile clusters detected by MALDI-TOF MS and the phylogeny of Pseudomonas strains based on the rpoD gene sequence, the assessment of the higher species discriminative power of the rpoD gene sequence, as well as the estimation of the high diversity of Pseudomonas ssp. along the Danube river. This study highlights the Pseudomonas species diversity in freshwater ecosystems and the usefulness of the combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the dereplication of large sets of strains and the rpoD gene sequences for rapid and accurate identifications at the species level.
Project description:The taxonomic affiliation of Pseudomonas isolates is currently assessed by using the 16S rRNA gene, MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), or whole genome sequencing. Therefore, microbiologists are facing an arduous choice, either using the universal marker, knowing that these affiliations could be inaccurate, or engaging in more laborious and costly approaches. The rpoD gene, like the 16S rRNA gene, is included in most MLSA procedures and has already been suggested for the rapid identification of certain groups of Pseudomonas. However, a comprehensive overview of the rpoD-based phylogenetic relationships within the Pseudomonas genus is lacking. In this study, we present the rpoD-based phylogeny of 217 type strains of Pseudomonas and defined a cutoff value of 98% nucleotide identity to differentiate strains at the species level. To validate this approach, we sequenced the rpoD of 145 environmental isolates and complemented this analysis with whole genome sequencing. The rpoD sequence allowed us to accurately assign Pseudomonas isolates to 20 known species and represents an excellent first diagnostic tool to identify new Pseudomonas species. Finally, rpoD amplicon sequencing appears as a reliable and low-cost alternative, particularly in the case of large environmental studies with hundreds or thousands of isolates.
Project description:Phylogenetic relationship of 22 FLPs was revealed on the basis of polymorphism in three genes namely 16S rDNA, Pseudomonas-specific and rpoD gene regions. The primers for 16S rDNA, Pseudomonas-specific region and rpoD gene region were amplifying a region of 1492, 990 and 760 bp, respectively, from all the isolates investigated. The RFLP analysis of the PCR products resulted in a classification of these fluorescent pseudomonads which was best answered by rpoD-based RFLP analysis. The 22 FLPs were placed in two major clusters and seven subclusters suggesting that these were genotypically heterogenous and might belong to several species within Pseudomonas sensu stricto. Sequence analysis of these three genes for three selected isolates AS5, AS7 and AS15 showed 16S rDNA and Pseudomonas-specific gene region phylogenies were generally similar, but rpoD gene phylogeny was somewhat different from these two genes. These results were also congruent with the results of RFLP of these three genes. rpoD provided comparable phylogenetic resolution to that of the 16S rRNA and Pseudomonas-specific genes at all taxonomic levels, except between closely related organisms (species and subspecies levels), for which it provided better resolution. This is particularly relevant in the context of a growing number of studies focusing on subspecies diversity, in which single-copy protein-encoding genes such as rpoD could complement and better justify the information provided by the 16S rRNA gene. Hence rpoD can be used further as an evolutionary chronometer for species-level identification.
Project description:Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 produces a variety of secondary metabolites, in particular the antibiotics pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, and protects various plants from diseases caused by soilborne pathogenic fungi. The rpoD gene encoding the housekeeping sigma factor sigma 70 of P. fluorescens was sequenced. The deduced RpoD protein showed 83% identity with RpoD of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 67% identity with RpoD of Escherichia coli. Attempts to inactivate the single chromosomal rpoD gene of strain CHA0 were unsuccessful, indicating an essential role of this gene. When rpoD was carried by an IncP vector in strain CHA0, the production of both antibiotics was increased severalfold and, in parallel, protection of cucumber against disease caused by Pythium ultimum was improved, in comparison with strain CHA0.
Project description:Species of the genus Pseudomonas are used for several biotechnological purposes, including plant biocontrol and bioremediation. To exploit the Pseudomonas genus in environmental, agricultural, or industrial settings, the organisms must be profiled at the species level as their bioactivity potential differs markedly between species. Standard 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling does not allow for accurate species differentiation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop an amplicon-based high-resolution method targeting a 760-nucleotide (nt) region of the <i>rpoD</i> gene enabling taxonomic differentiation of Pseudomonas species in soil samples. The method was benchmarked on a 16-member Pseudomonas species mock community. All 16 species were correctly and semiquantitatively identified using <i>rpoD</i> gene amplicons, whereas 16S rRNA V3-V4 amplicon sequencing only correctly identified one species. We analyzed the Pseudomonas profiles in 13 soil samples in northern Zealand, Denmark, where samples were collected from grassland (3 samples) and agriculture soil (10 samples). Pseudomonas species represented up to 0.7% of the 16S rRNA gene abundance, of which each sampling site contained a unique Pseudomonas composition. Thirty culturable Pseudomonas strains were isolated from each grassland site and 10 from each agriculture site and identified by Sanger sequencing of the <i>rpoD</i> gene. In all cases, the <i>rpoD</i> amplicon approach identified more species than were found by cultivation, including hard-to-culture nonfluorescent pseudomonads, as well as more than were found by 16S rRNA V3-V4 amplicon sequencing. Thus, <i>rpoD</i> profiling can be used for species profiling of Pseudomonas, and large-scale prospecting of bioactive Pseudomonas may be guided by initial screening using this method. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> A high-throughput sequencing-based method for profiling of Pseudomonas species in soil microbiomes was developed and identified more species than 16S rRNA gene sequencing or cultivation. Pseudomonas species are used as biocontrol organisms and plant growth-promoting agents, and the method will allow tracing of specific species of Pseudomonas as well as enable screening of environmental samples for further isolation and exploitation.
Project description:Microbial degradation is a major determinant of the fate of pollutants in the environment. para-Nitrophenol (PNP) is an EPA-listed priority pollutant with a wide environmental distribution, but little is known about the microorganisms that degrade it in the environment. We studied the diversity of active PNP-degrading bacterial populations in river water using a novel functional marker approach coupled with [(13)C6]PNP stable isotope probing (SIP). Culturing together with culture-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons identified Pseudomonas syringae to be the major driver of PNP degradation in river water microcosms. This was confirmed by SIP-pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA. Similarly, functional gene analysis showed that degradation followed the Gram-negative bacterial pathway and involved pnpA from Pseudomonas spp. However, analysis of maleylacetate reductase (encoded by mar), an enzyme common to late stages of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial PNP degradation pathways, identified a diverse assemblage of bacteria associated with PNP degradation, suggesting that mar has limited use as a specific marker of PNP biodegradation. Both the pnpA and mar genes were detected in a PNP-degrading isolate, P. syringae AKHD2, which was isolated from river water. Our results suggest that PNP-degrading cultures of Pseudomonas spp. are representative of environmental PNP-degrading populations.
Project description:The Galicia seashore, in northwestern Spain, was one of the shorelines affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. The diversity of autochthonous Pseudomonas populations present at two beaches (Carnota municipality) was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The first analysis involved the screening of an rpoD gene library. The second involved the isolation of 94 Pseudomonas strains that were able to grow on selective media by direct plating or after serial enrichments on several carbon sources: biphenyl, gentisate, hexadecane, methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, salicylate, xylene, and succinate. Eight denitrifying Pseudomonas strains were also isolated by their ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate. The calculated coverage index for Pseudomonas species was 89% when clones and isolates were considered together, and there were 29 phylospecies detected. The most abundant were members of the species P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica, and P. oleovorans. Thirty-one isolates could not be identified at the species level and were considered representatives of 16 putative novel Pseudomonas species. One isolate was considered representative of a novel P. stutzeri genomovar. Concordant results were obtained when the diversities of the cloned DNA library and the cultured strains were compared. The clone library obtained by the rpoD PCR method was a useful tool for evaluating Pseudomonas communities and also for microdiversity studies of Pseudomonas populations.
Project description:Many root-colonizing pseudomonads are able to promote plant growth by increasing phosphate availability in soil through solubilization of poorly soluble rock phosphates. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization by pseudomonads is the secretion of gluconic acid, which requires the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase and its cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether a PQQ biosynthetic gene is suitable to study the phylogeny of phosphate-solubilizing pseudomonads. To this end, two new primers, which specifically amplify the pqqC gene of the Pseudomonas genus, were designed. pqqC fragments were amplified and sequenced from a Pseudomonas strain collection and from a natural wheat rhizosphere population using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. Phylogenetic trees based on pqqC sequences were compared to trees obtained with the two concatenated housekeeping genes rpoD and gyrB. For both pqqC and rpoD-gyrB, similar main phylogenetic clusters were found. However, in the pqqC but not in the rpoD-gyrB tree, the group of fluorescent pseudomonads producing the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin was located outside the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. pqqC sequences from isolated pseudomonads were differently distributed among the identified phylogenetic groups than pqqC sequences derived from the cultivation-independent approach. Comparing pqqC phylogeny and phosphate solubilization activity, we identified one phylogenetic group with high solubilization activity. In summary, we demonstrate that the gene pqqC is a novel molecular marker that can be used complementary to housekeeping genes for studying the diversity and evolution of plant-beneficial pseudomonads.
Project description:The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup.