Project description:Using heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, we have identified a region on rat chromosome 1 that maps multiple diabetic traits. We sought to use global expression analysis to determine if genes within this region are differentially expressed between HS rats with normal glucose tolerance and those with glucose intolerance HS rats were euthanized at 17 weeks of age and liver was immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. RNA was extracted from liver of 23 HS rats with glucose intolerance and 23 HS rats with normal glucose. The Affymetrix 230_2 array was used to probe transcript abundance levels.
Project description:Using heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, we have identified a region on rat chromosome 1 that maps multiple diabetic traits. We sought to use global expression analysis to determine if genes within this region are differentially expressed between HS rats with normal glucose tolerance and those with glucose intolerance HS rats were euthanized at 17 weeks of age and tail sample was taken. Genomic DNA was extracted from tail of 23 HS rats with glucose intolerance and 23 HS rats with normal glucose. The Affymetrix 10K SNP array was used to genotype these animals.
Project description:Heterogeneous stock (HS) animals provide the ability to map quantitative trait loci at high resolution [<5 Megabase (Mb)] in a relatively short time period. In the current study, we hypothesized that the HS rat colony would be useful for fine-mapping a region on rat chromosome 1 that has previously been implicated in glucose regulation. We administered a glucose tolerance test to 515 HS rats and genotyped these animals with 69 microsatellite markers, spaced an average distance of <1 Mb apart, on a 67 Mb region of rat chromosome 1. Using regression modeling of inferred haplotypes based on a hidden Markov model reconstruction and mixed model analysis in which we accounted for the complex family structure of the HS, we identified one sharp peak within this region. Using positional bootstrapping, we determined the most likely location of this locus is from 205.04 to 207.48 Mb. This work demonstrates the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping complex traits and emphasizes the importance of taking into account family structure when using highly recombinant populations.
Project description:1. The effects of hypothyroidism (caused by surgical thyroidectomy followed by treatment for 1 month with propylthiouracil) and of hyperthyroidism [induced by subcutaneous administration of L-tri-iodothyronine (T3)] on glucose tolerance and skeletal-muscle sensitivity to insulin were examined in rats. Glucose tolerance was estimated during 2 h after subcutaneous glucose injection (1 g/kg body wt.). The sensitivity of the soleus muscle to insulin was studied in vitro in sedentary and acutely exercised animals. 2. Glucose tolerance was impaired in both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats in comparison with euthyroid controls. 3. In the soleus muscle, responsiveness of the rate of lactate formation to insulin was abolished in hypothyroid rats, whereas the sensitivity of the rate of glycogen synthesis to insulin was unchanged. In hyperthyroid animals, opposite changes were found, i.e. responsiveness of the rate of glycogen synthesis was inhibited and the sensitivity of the rate of lactate production did not differ from that in control sedentary rats. 4. A single bout of exercise for 30 min potentiated the stimulatory effect of insulin on lactate formation in hyperthyroid rats and on glycogen synthesis in hypothyroid animals. 5. The data suggest that thyroid hormones exert an interactive effect with insulin in skeletal muscle. This is likely to be at the post-receptor level, inhibiting the effect of insulin on glycogen synthesis and stimulating oxidative glucose utilization.
Project description:RATIONALE:Ventricular enlargement is a robust phenotype of the chronically dependent alcoholic human brain, yet the mechanism of ventriculomegaly is unestablished. Heterogeneous stock Wistar rats administered binge EtOH (3 g/kg intragastrically every 8 h for 4 days to average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of 250 mg/dL) demonstrate profound but reversible ventricular enlargement and changes in brain metabolites (e.g., N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho)). OBJECTIVES:Here, alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats systematically bred from heterogeneous stock Wistar rats for differential alcohol drinking behavior were compared with Wistar rats to determine whether genetic divergence and consequent morphological and neurochemical variation affect the brain's response to binge EtOH treatment. METHODS:The three rat lines were dosed equivalently and approached similar BALs. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy evaluated the effects of binge EtOH on brain. RESULTS:As observed in Wistar rats, P and NP rats showed decreases in NAA. Neither P nor NP rats, however, responded to EtOH intoxication with ventricular expansion or increases in Cho levels as previously noted in Wistar rats. Increases in ventricular volume correlated with increases in Cho in Wistar rats. CONCLUSIONS:The latter finding suggests that ventricular volume expansion is related to adaptive changes in brain cell membranes in response to binge EtOH. That P and NP rats responded differently to EtOH argues for intrinsic differences in their brain cell membrane composition. Further, differential metabolite responses to EtOH administration by rat strain implicate selective genetic variation as underlying heterogeneous effects of chronic alcoholism in the human condition.
Project description:Prediabetes is a heterogeneous disorder classified on the basis of fasting glucose concentrations and 2-hour glucose tolerance.We sought to determine the relative contributions of insulin secretion and action to the pathogenesis of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).The study consisted of an oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic clamp performed in two cohorts matched for anthropometric characteristics and fasting glucose but discordant for glucose tolerance.An inpatient clinical research unit at an academic medical center.Twenty-five subjects who had normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 19 NFG/IGT subjects participated in this study.Subjects underwent a seven-sample oral glucose tolerance test and a 4-hour euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp on separate occasions. Glucose turnover during the clamp was measured using tracers, and endogenous hormone secretion was inhibited by somatostatin.We sought to determine whether hepatic glucose metabolism, specifically the contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production, differed between subjects with NFG/NGT and those with NFG/IGT.Endogenous glucose production did not differ between groups before or during the clamp. Insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance was lower in NFG/IGT (24.6 ± 2.2 vs 35.0 ± 3.6 ?mol/kg/min; P = .03). The disposition index was decreased in NFG/IGT (681 ± 102 vs 2231 ± 413 × 10-14 dL/kg/min2 per pmol/L; P < .001).We conclude that innate defects in the regulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis do not contribute to NFG/IGT. However, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is impaired, exacerbating defects in ?-cell function.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H?S) is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition and stimulation of H?S synthesis has been suggested to be a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effects of long-term sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) administration as a H?S releasing agent on carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was established using high fat-low dose streptozotocin. Rats were treated for 9 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of NaSH (0.28, 0.56, 1.6, 2.8, and 5.6 mg/kg). Serum glucose was measured weekly for one month and then at the end of the study. Serum insulin was measured before and after the treatment. At the end of the study, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and insulin secretion were determined and blood pressure was measured. In diabetic rats NaSH at 1.6?5.6 mg/kg increased serum glucose (11%, 28%, and 51%, respectively) and decreased serum insulin, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and in vivo insulin secretion. In controls, NaSH only at 5.6 mg/kg increased serum glucose and decreased glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and insulin secretion. Chronic administration of NaSH in particular at high doses impaired carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.
Project description:Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a debilitating complication of diabetes that affects >50% of patients. Recent evidence suggests that obesity and metabolic disease, which often precede diabetes diagnosis, may influence PN onset and severity. We examined this in a translationally relevant model of prediabetes induced by a cafeteria (CAF) diet in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15 CAF versus n = 15 control). Neuropathy phenotyping included nerve conduction, tactile sensitivity, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and nerve excitability testing, an in vivo measure of ion channel function and membrane potential. Metabolic phenotyping included body composition, blood glucose and lipids, plasma hormones and inflammatory cytokines. After 13 weeks diet, CAF-fed rats demonstrated prediabetes with significantly elevated fasting blood glucose, insulin and impaired glucose tolerance as well as obesity and dyslipidemia. Nerve conduction, tactile sensitivity and IENFD did not differ; however, superexcitability was significantly increased in CAF-fed rats. Mathematical modeling demonstrated this was consistent with a reduction in sodium-potassium pump current. Moreover, superexcitability correlated positively with insulin resistance and adiposity, and negatively with fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In conclusion, prediabetic rats over-consuming processed, palatable foods demonstrated altered nerve function that preceded overt PN. This work provides a relevant model for pathophysiological investigation of diabetic complications.