Project description:Cellular binary fate decisions require the progeny to silence genes associated with the alternative fate. The major subsets of alpha:beta T cells have been extensively studied as a model system for fate decisions. While the transcription factor RUNX3 is required for the initiation of Cd4 silencing in CD8 T cell progenitors, it is not required to maintain the silencing of Cd4 and other helper T lineage genes. The other runt domain containing protein, RUNX1, silences Cd4 in an earlier T cell progenitor, but this silencing is reversed whereas the gene silencing after RUNX3 expression is not reverse. Therefore, we hypothesized that RUNX3 and not RUNX1 recruits other factors that maintains the silencing of helper T lineage genes in CD8 T cells. To this end, we performed a proteomics screen of RUNX1 and RUNX3 to determine candidate silencing factors.
Project description:Gene expression data from wild-type and Bcl6-/- naive CD4 T cells In order to find genes regulated by Bcl6 in follicular helper T cells Naïve CD4 T cells were sorted from wild-type (WT) and T cell-specific conditional Bcl6-/- (KO) mice-- 8 samples, 4 WT and 4 KO
Project description:Gene expression data from wild-type and Bcl6-/- naive CD4 T cells In order to find genes regulated by Bcl6 in follicular helper T cells Overall design: Naïve CD4 T cells were sorted from wild-type (WT) and T cell-specific conditional Bcl6-/- (KO) mice-- 8 samples, 4 WT and 4 KO
Project description:The role of mitochondria dynamics and its molecular regulators remains largely unknown during naïve-to-primed pluripotent cell interconversion. Here we report that mitochondrial MTCH2 is a regulator of mitochondrial fusion, essential for the naïve-to-primed interconversion of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). During this interconversion, wild-type ESCs elongate their mitochondria and slightly alter their glutamine utilization. In contrast, MTCH2-/- ESCs fail to elongate their mitochondria and to alter their metabolism, maintaining high levels of histone acetylation and expression of naïve pluripotency markers. Importantly, enforced mitochondria elongation by the pro-fusion protein Mitofusin (MFN) 2 or by a dominant negative form of the pro-fission protein dynamin-related protein (DRP) 1 is sufficient to drive the exit from naïve pluripotency of both MTCH2-/- and wild-type ESCs. Taken together, our data indicate that mitochondria elongation, governed by MTCH2, plays a critical role and constitutes an early driving force in the naïve-to-primed pluripotency interconversion of murine ESCs. Overall design: Examination of WT and MTCH2 KO ESC and EpiLC mouse embryonic stem cells transcriptome
Project description:Naïve CD4+ T cells coordinate the immune response by acquiring an effector phenotype in response to cytokines. However, the cytokine responses in memory T cells remain largely understudied. We used quantitative proteomics, bulk RNA-seq and single-cell RNA-seq of over 40,000 human naïve and memory CD4+ T cells to generate a detailed map of cytokine-regulated gene expression programs. We demonstrated that cytokine response differs substantially between naïve and memory T cells and showed that memory cells are unable to differentiate into the Th2 phenotype. Moreover, memory T cells acquire a Th17-like phenotype in response to iTreg polarization. At the single-cell level, we demonstrated that T cells form a continuum which progresses from naïve to effector memory T cells. This continuum is accompanied by a gradual increase in the expression levels of chemokines and cytokines and thus represents an effectorness gradient. Finally, we found that T cell cytokine responses are determined by where the cells lie in the effectorness gradient and identified genes whose expression is controlled by cytokines in an effectorness-dependent manner. Our results shed light on the heterogeneity of T cells and their responses to cytokines, provide insight into immune disease inflammation and could inform drug development.
Project description:PURPOSE: To provide a detailed gene expression profile of the normal postnatal mouse cornea. METHODS: Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was performed on postnatal day (PN)9 and adult mouse (6 week) total corneas. The expression of selected genes was analyzed by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: A total of 64,272 PN9 and 62,206 adult tags were sequenced. Mouse corneal transcriptomes are composed of at least 19,544 and 18,509 unique mRNAs, respectively. One third of the unique tags were expressed at both stages, whereas a third was identified exclusively in PN9 or adult corneas. Three hundred thirty-four PN9 and 339 adult tags were enriched more than fivefold over other published nonocular libraries. Abundant transcripts were associated with metabolic functions, redox activities, and barrier integrity. Three members of the Ly-6/uPAR family whose functions are unknown in the cornea constitute more than 1% of the total mRNA. Aquaporin 5, epithelial membrane protein and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) omega-1, and GST alpha-4 mRNAs were preferentially expressed in distinct corneal epithelial layers, providing new markers for stratification. More than 200 tags were differentially expressed, of which 25 mediate transcription. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to providing a detailed profile of expressed genes in the PN9 and mature mouse cornea, the present SAGE data demonstrate dynamic changes in gene expression after eye opening and provide new probes for exploring corneal epithelial cell stratification, development, and function and for exploring the intricate relationship between programmed and environmentally induced gene expression in the cornea. Keywords: other