Project description:Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is performed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×10(3) to 2.10±0.13×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight), and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×10(3) to 1.83±0.18×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight). A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium (NH4(+)) as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN) influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems.
Project description:The Indian River Lagoon, located on the east coast of Florida, USA, is an Estuary of National Significance and an important economic and ecological resource. The Indian River Lagoon faces several environmental pressures, including freshwater discharges through the St. Lucie Estuary; accumulation of anoxic, fine-grained, organic-rich sediment; and metal contamination from agriculture and marinas. Although the Indian River Lagoon has been well-studied, little is known about its microbial communities; thus, a two-year 16S amplicon sequencing study was conducted to assess the spatiotemporal changes of the sediment bacterial and archaeal groups. In general, the Indian River Lagoon exhibited a prokaryotic community that was consistent with other estuarine studies. Statistically different communities were found between the Indian River Lagoon and St. Lucie Estuary due to changes in porewater salinity causing microbes that require salts for growth to be higher in the Indian River Lagoon. The St. Lucie Estuary exhibited more obvious prokaryotic seasonality, such as a higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteriales in wet season and a higher relative abundance of Flavobacteriales in dry season samples. Distance-based linear models revealed these communities were more affected by changes in total organic matter and copper than changes in temperature. Anaerobic prokaryotes, such as Campylobacterales, were more associated with high total organic matter and copper samples while aerobic prokaryotes, such as Nitrosopumilales, were more associated with low total organic matter and copper samples. This initial study fills the knowledge gap on the Indian River Lagoon bacterial and archaeal communities and serves as important data for future studies to compare to determine possible future changes due to human impacts or environmental changes.
Project description:Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.
Project description:We investigated the diversity and community composition of denitrifying bacteria in surface water from the Yellow River estuary. Our results indicated that the diversity of the denitrifying community in freshwater based on the nirK gene was higher than that in seawater. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bacteria community could be distributed into eight clusters (Clusters I to VIII). Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that community compositions were related to multiple environment factors, such as salinity and nitrate concentration. The results of the present study have provided a novel insight into the denitrifying community in water columns in estuaries.
Project description:Sediment fluxes at the estuary-sea interface strongly impact particle matter exchanges between marine and continental sources along the land-sea continuum. However, human activities drive pressures on estuary physical functioning, hence threatening estuarine habitats and their ecosystem services. This study explores a 22-year numerical hindcast of the macrotidal Seine Estuary (France), experiencing contrasted meteorological conditions and anthropogenic changes (i.e., estuary deepening and narrowing). The hindcast was thoroughly validated for both water column and sediment bed dynamics and showed good capacities to simulate annual sediment budgets observed from 1990 to 2015. We aim at disentangling the relative contributions of meteorological and human-induced morphological changes on net sediment fluxes between the estuary and its adjacent coastal sea. Our results highlight that intense wave events induce fine sediment (≤ 100 µm) export to the sea but coarser sediment (≥ 210 µm) import within the estuary. Although intense river discharges induce mud export to the sea, moderate to large river discharges prove to support mud import within the estuary. Wave and river discharge events were less intense in 2005-2015 than in 1990-2000, reducing fine sediment export to the sea. The estuary deepening and narrowing due to human activities increased fine sediment import within the estuary, shifting the estuary from an exporting to importing system. We propose a conceptualization of mud flux response to river discharge and wave forcing, as well as anthropogenic pressures. It provides valuable insights into particle transfers along the land-sea continuum, contributing to a better understanding of estuarine ecosystem trajectories under global changes.
Project description:The Taehwa River Estuary is one of the largest enclosed bays in east Korea. In order to understand the environment of the Taehwa River Estuary, the microbial diversity in the sediment of the estuary was investigated through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The predominant phyla in all locations were <i>Proteobacteria</i> and <i>Bacteroidetes</i>.
Project description:Stable isotope analysis is a universally recognized and efficient method of indicating trophic relationships that is widely applied in research. However, variation in stable isotope ratios may lead to inaccuracies due to the effects of complex environmental conditions. This research compared the carbon and nitrogen isotopic niches of fish communities between diverse biotopes around the Yellow River estuary and adjacent sea areas, with the aim of revealing distinctions in stable isotopic niche metrics, trophic positions, and feeding preferences. Our analysis of the food source contribution indicated that allochthonous sources were considered major energy sources in estuarine areas directly affected by Yellow River-diluted water, while autochthonous benthic and pelagic producers dominated carbon input into the food web in Laizhou Bay and the open water. A significant variation in the fish δ<sup>15</sup>N characteristic was found within estuarine adjacent regions, so, together with the results from previous studies, we deemed the local high concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen as the original trigger of the abnormal δ<sup>15</sup>N characteristic in fishes via a transport process along food chains. These results provide a new perspective on the natural distinction of carbon and nitrogen isotopic niches. The detailed data reported here enhance our understanding of variations in fish communities in estuarine ecosystems.
Project description:The Achères wastewater treatment plant, located just downstream of Paris, discharges its effluents into the lower Seine River. The effluents contain large numbers of heterotrophic bacteria, organic matter, and ammonium and are a source of nitrifying bacteria. As a result, degradation of organic matter by heterotrophic bacteria and subsequent oxygen depletion occur immediately downstream of the effluent outlet, whereas nitrifying bacteria apparently need to build up a significant biomass before ammonium oxidation significantly depletes the oxygen. We quantified the potential total nitrifying activity and the potential activities of the ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing communities along the Seine River. In the summer, the maximum nitrifying activity occurs in the upper freshwater estuary, approximately 200 km downstream of Achères. The quantities of nitrifying bacteria, based on amoA gene copy numbers, and of Nitrobacter organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, were correlated with the potential nitrifying activities. The species composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was investigated at two sites: the Triel station just downstream from Achères (km 84) and the Seine freshwater estuary at the Duclair station (km 278). By means of PCR primers targeting the amoA gene, a gene library was created. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the analyzed clones at both sites were affiliated with the genus NITROSOMONAS: The Nitrosomonas oligotropha- and Nitrosomonas urea-related clones represented nearly 81% of the community of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at Triel and 60% at Duclair. Two other ammonia-oxidizing clusters of the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria, i.e., Nitrosomonas europaea- and Nitrosospira-like bacteria, were found in smaller numbers. The major change in the ammonia-oxidizing community between the two stations along the Seine River-upper estuary continuum was the replacement of the N. oligotropha- and N. urea-related bacteria by the Nitrosospira-affiliated bacteria. Although the diversities of the ammonia oxidizers appear to be similar for the two sites, only half of the restriction patterns are common to both sites, which could be explained by the differences in ammonium concentrations, which are much lower in the upper estuary than in the river at the effluent outlet. These results imply a significant immigration and/or selection of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial population along the continuum of the Seine River from Paris to the estuary.
Project description:The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the alpha, gamma, or delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (beta-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and alpha-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean.