Project description:To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compounds, both mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering have been extensively applied. Mutagenesis approaches are most popular in industry, but their effects have not yet been studied very well. Here, we used microarrays to compare the transcriptomes of the S. clavuligerus wild type (ATCC 27064) strain and the DS48802 clavulanic acid high-producer strain, which has been obtained by classical strain improvement (mutagenesis). Streptomyces clavuligerus strains were grown in shake flasks. RNA was extracted after 70h and hybridized to microarrays.
Project description:To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compounds, both mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering have been extensively applied. Mutagenesis approaches are most popular in industry, but their effects have not yet been studied very well. Here, we used microarrays to compare the transcriptomes of the S. clavuligerus wild type (ATCC 27064) strain and the DS48802 clavulanic acid high-producer strain, which has been obtained by classical strain improvement (mutagenesis). Overall design: Streptomyces clavuligerus strains were grown in shake flasks. RNA was extracted after 70h and hybridized to microarrays.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus is a filamentous Gram-positive bacterial producer of the ?-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. Antibiotics biosynthesis in the Streptomyces genus is usually triggered by nutritional and environmental perturbations. In this work, a new genome scale metabolic network of Streptomyces clavuligerus was reconstructed and used to study the experimentally observed effect of oxygen and phosphate concentrations on clavulanic acid biosynthesis under high and low shear stress. A flux balance analysis based on experimental evidence revealed that clavulanic acid biosynthetic reaction fluxes are favored in conditions of phosphate limitation, and this is correlated with enhanced activity of central and amino acid metabolism, as well as with enhanced oxygen uptake. In silico and experimental results show a possible slowing down of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) due to reduced oxygen availability in low shear stress conditions. In contrast, high shear stress conditions are connected with high intracellular oxygen availability favoring TCA activity, precursors availability and clavulanic acid (CA) production.
Project description:The usefulness of genetic/metabolic engineering for further improvement of industrial strains is subject of discussion because of the general lack of knowledge on genetic alterations introduced by iterative cycles of random mutagenesis in such strains. An industrial clavulanic acid (CA)-overproducer Streptomyces clavuligerus DEPA was assessed to understand proteome-wide changes that have occurred in a local industrial CA overproducer developed through succesive mutagenesis programs. The proteins that could be identified corresponded to 33 distinct ORFs for underrepresented ones and 60 ORFs for overrepresented ones. Three CA biosynthetic enzymes were overrepresented in S. clavuligerus DEPA; carboxyethylarginine synthase (Ceas2), clavaldehyde dehydrogenase (Car) and carboxyethyl-arginine beta-lactam-synthase (Bls2) whereas the enzymes of two other secondary metabolites were underrepresented along with two important global regulators [two-component system (TCS) response regulator (SCLAV_2102) and TetR-family transcriptional regulator (SCLAV_3146)] that might be related with CA production and/or differentiation. ?-butyrolactone biosynthetic protein AvaA2 was 2.6 fold underrepresented in S. clavuligerus DEPA. The levels of two glycolytic enzymes, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase and phosophoglycerate kinase were found decreased while those of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) and isocitrate dehydrogenase, with two isoforms were found as significantly increased. A decrease of amino acid metabolism, methionine biosynthesis in particular, as well as S-adenosylmethionine synthetase appeared as one of the prominent mechanisms of success of S. clavuligerus DEPA strain as a prolific producer of CA. The levels of two enzymes of shikimate pathway that leads to the production of aromatic amino acids and aromatic secondary metabolites were also underrepresented. Some of the overrepresented stress proteins in S. clavuligerus DEPA included polynucleotide phosphorylase/polyadenylase (PNPase), ATP-dependent DNA helicase, two isoforms of an anti-sigma factor and thioredoxin reductase. Downregulation of important proteins of cell wall synthesis and division was recorded and a protein with ?-lactamase domain (SCLAV_p1007) appeared in 12 isoforms, 5 of which were drastically overrepresented in DEPA strain. These results described herein provide useful information for rational engineering to improve CA production in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
Project description:The Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 glycerol cluster gylR-glpF1K1D1 is induced by glycerol but is not affected by glucose. S. clavuligerus growth and clavulanic acid production are stimulated by glycerol, but this does not occur in a glpK1-deleted mutant. Amplification of glpK1D1 results in transformants yielding larger amounts of clavulanic acid in the wild-type strain and in overproducer S. clavuligerus Gap15-7-30 or S. clavuligerus Delta relA strains.
Project description:Adaptation is normally viewed as the enemy of the antibiotic discovery and development process because adaptation among pathogens to antibiotic exposure leads to resistance. We present a method here that, in contrast, exploits the power of adaptation among antibiotic producers to accelerate the discovery of antibiotics. A competition-based adaptive laboratory evolution scheme is presented whereby an antibiotic-producing microorganism is competed against a target pathogen and serially passed over time until the producer evolves the ability to synthesize a chemical entity that inhibits growth of the pathogen. When multiple Streptomyces clavuligerus replicates were adaptively evolved against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus N315 in this manner, a strain emerged that acquired the ability to constitutively produce holomycin. In contrast, no holomycin could be detected from the unevolved wild-type strain. Moreover, genome re-sequencing revealed that the evolved strain had lost pSCL4, a large 1.8 Mbp plasmid, and acquired several single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that have been shown to affect secondary metabolite biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that competition-based adaptive laboratory evolution can constitute a platform to create mutants that overproduce known antibiotics and possibly to discover new compounds as well.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus, an industrially important producer of clavulanate as well as cephem antibiotics, also produces the N-acylated dithiolopyrrolone antibiotic holomycin, a reported inhibitor of RNA synthesis. The genome sequence of S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 was examined for a potential biosynthetic gene cluster, assuming that holomycin arises from some derivative of an L-Cys-L-Cys dipeptide that has undergone eight-electron oxidation, fused five-five ring formation, and decarboxylation. ORFs 3483-3492 comprise a candidate cluster, with a predicted acyltransferase, a stand-alone nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) module, and four flavin-dependent oxidoreductases. Deletions of ORF3488, the NRPS module, and ORF3489, a phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase homolog, abolished holomycin production both in wild type and in a holomycin-overproducing mutant. Heterologous expression and purification of ORF3488 allowed demonstration of L-Cys-AMP formation and subsequent covalent tethering of Cys to the phosphopantetheinyl arm of the thiolation domain of this NRPS protein. Purified ORF3483 shows acyltransferase activity, converting holothin to holomycin and longer acylated homologs as the last step in antibiotic assembly.
Project description:Holomycin and related dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and contain a unique 5,5-bicyclic ring structure with an N-acylated aminopyrrolone fused to a cyclic ene-disulfide. Here we show that the intramolecular disulfide bridge is constructed from the acyclic ene-dithiol at a late stage in the pathway by a thioredoxin oxidoreductase-like enzyme HlmI from the holomycin producer Streptomyces clavuligerus. Recombinant HlmI was purified from E. coli with bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and converts reduced holomycin to holomycin utilizing O(2) as cosubstrate. As a dithiol oxidase, HlmI is functionally homologous to GliT and DepH, which perform a similar dithiol to disulfide oxidation in the biosynthesis of fungal natural product gliotoxin and epigenetic regulator compound FK228, respectively. Deletion of the hlmI gene in the wild type S. clavuligerus and in a holomycin-overproducing mutant resulted in decreased level of holomycin production and increased sensitivity toward holomycin, suggesting a self-protection role of HlmI in the holomycin biosynthetic pathway. HlmI belongs to a new clade of uncharacterized thioredoxin oxidoreductase-like enzymes, distinctive from the GliT-like enzymes and the DepH-like enzymes, and represents a third example of oxidoreductases that catalyzes disulfide formation in the biosynthesis of small molecules.