Project description:Lipid supplementation is a promising strategy for methane mitigation in cattle and has been evaluated using several different lipid sources. However, limited studies have assessed the effect of temperature on methane emissions from cattle and changes in incubation temperature have also not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of pequi oil (high in unsaturated fatty acids) and incubation temperature on fermentation characteristics and microbial communities using the rumen simulation technique. A completely randomized experiment was conducted over a 28-day period using a Rusitec system. The experiment was divided into four periods of 7 days each, the first of which was a 7-day adaptation period followed by three experimental periods. The two treatments consisted of a control diet (no pequi oil inclusion) and a diet supplemented with pequi oil (1.5 mL/day) which increased the dietary fat content to 6% (dry matter, DM-basis). Three fermenter vessels (i.e., replicates) were allocated to each treatment. In the first experimental period, the incubation temperature was maintained at 39°C, decreased to 35°C in the second experimental period and then increased again to 39°C in the third. Pequi oil was continuously supplemented during the experiment. Microbial communities were assessed using high-throughput sequencing of the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Methane production was reduced by 57% following a 4°C decrease in incubation temperature. Supplementation with pequi oil increased the dietary fat content to 6% (DM-basis) but did not affect methane production. Analysis of the microbiota revealed that decreasing incubation temperature to 35°C affected the archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness of liquid-associated microbes, but lipid supplementation did not change microbial diversity.
Project description:Diurnal patterns of ruminal fermentation metabolites and microbial communities are not commonly assessed when investigating variation in ruminal CH4 production. The aims of this study were to monitor diurnal patterns of: (i) gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations in the bovine rumen, (ii) H2 and CH4 emitted, and (iii) the rumen microbiota. Furthermore, the effect of dietary inclusion of linseed oil on these patterns was assessed. Four rumen cannulated multiparous cows were used in a cross-over design with two 17 days periods and two dietary treatments: a control diet and a linseed oil supplemented diet [40% maize silage, 30% grass silage, 30% concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis for both diets; fat contents of 33 vs. 56 g/kg of DM]. On day 11, rumen contents were sampled for 10 h after morning feeding to profile gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations and microbiota composition. H2 and CH4 emission (mass per unit of time) was measured in respiration chambers from day 13 to 17. A 100-fold increase in ruminal H2 partial pressure (contribution to the total pressure of rumen headspace gases) was observed at 0.5 h after feeding. This peak was followed by a decline to basal level. Qualitatively similar patterns after feeding were also observed for H2 and CH4 emission, ethanol and lactate concentrations, and propionate molar proportion, although the opposite pattern was seen for acetate molar proportion. Associated with these patterns, a temporal biphasic change in the microbial composition was observed as based on 16S ribosomal RNA with certain taxa specifically associated with each phase. Bacterial concentrations (log10 16S ribosomal RNA gene copies based) were affected by time, and were increased by linseed oil supplementation. Archaeal concentrations (log10 16S ribosomal RNA gene copies based) tended to be affected by time and were not affected by diet, despite linseed oil supplementation decreasing CH4 emission, tending to decrease the partial pressure of CH4, and tending to increase propionate molar proportion. Linseed oil supplementation affected microbiota composition, and was most associated with an uncultivated Bacteroidales taxon. In summary, our findings support the importance of diurnal dynamics for the understanding of VFA, H2, and CH4 production.
Project description:Developing novel strategies for improving the fatty acid composition of ruminant products relies upon increasing our understanding of rumen bacterial lipid metabolism. This study investigated whether flax or echium oil supplementation of steer diets could alter the rumen fatty acids and change the microbiome. Six Hereford?×?Friesian steers were offered grass silage/sugar beet pulp only (GS), or GS supplemented either with flax oil (GSF) or echium oil (GSE) at 3% kg(-1) silage dry matter in a 3?×?3 replicated Latin square design with 21-day periods with rumen samples taken on day 21 for the analyses of the fatty acids and microbiome. Flax oil supplementation of steer diets increased the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a substantial degree of rumen biohydrogenation was seen. Likewise, echium oil supplementation of steer diets resulted in increased intake of 18:4n-3, but this was substantially biohydrogenated within the rumen. Microbiome pyrosequences showed that 50% of the bacterial genera were core to all diets (found at least once under each dietary intervention), with 19.10%, 5.460% and 12.02% being unique to the rumen microbiota of steers fed GS, GSF and GSE respectively. Higher 16S rDNA sequence abundance of the genera Butyrivibrio, Howardella, Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Roseburia was seen post flax feeding. Higher 16S rDNA abundance of the genus Succinovibrio and Roseburia was seen post echium feeding. The role of these bacteria in biohydrogenation now requires further study.
Project description:It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; P<0.02) and increased hydrogen (P<0.03) emissions in both experiments. Furthermore, the effect of nitrate on gaseous emissions was accompanied by an increased rumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.
Project description:Microorganisms in the digestive tract of ruminants differ in their functionality and ability to use feed constituents. While cecal microbiota play an important role in post-rumen fermentation of residual substrates undigested in the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding its structure and function. In this trial we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions and on the structure of ruminal and cecal microbiota of growing bulls. Animals were allocated to either a CTL (control) or LINNIT (CTL supplemented with 1.9% linseed and 1.0% nitrates) diet. Methane emissions were measured using the GreenFeed system. Microbial diversity was assessed using amplicon sequencing of microbial genomic DNA. Additionally, total RNA was extracted from ruminal contents and functional mcrA and mtt genes were targeted in amplicon sequencing approach to explore the diversity of functional gene expression in methanogens. LINNIT had no effect on methane yield (g/kg DMI) even though it decreased methane production by 9% (g/day; P < 0.05). Methanobrevibacter- and Methanomassiliicoccaceae-related OTUs were more abundant in cecum (72 and 24%) compared to rumen (60 and 11%) irrespective of the diet (P < 0.05). Feeding LINNIT reduced the relative abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae mcrA cDNA reads in the rumen. Principal component analysis revealed significant differences in taxonomic composition and abundance of bacterial communities between rumen and cecum. Treatment decreased the relative abundance of a few Ruminococcaceae genera, without affecting global bacterial community structure. Our research confirms a high level of heterogeneity in species composition of microbial consortia in the main gastrointestinal compartments where feed is fermented in ruminants. There was a parallel between the lack of effect of LINNIT on ruminal and cecal microbial community structure and functions on one side and methane emission changes on the other. These results suggest that the sequencing strategy used here to study microbial diversity and function accurately reflected the absence of effect on methane phenotypes in bulls treated with linseed plus nitrate.
Project description:This study was performed to explore the predominant responses of rumen microbiota with thymol supplementation as well as effective dose of thymol on rumen fermentation. Thymol at different concentrations, i.e., 0, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/L (four groups × five replications) was applied for 24 h of fermentation in a rumen fluid incubation system. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate the ruminal microbes in addition to the examination of rumen fermentation. Thymol doses reached 200 mg/L and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) total gas production (TGP) and methane production; the production of total volatile fatty acids (VFA), propionate, and ammonia nitrogen, and the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter were apparently decreased (p < 0.05) when the thymol dose reached 400 mg/L. A thymol dose of 200 mg/L significantly affected (p < 0.05) the relative abundance of 14 genera of bacteria, three species of archaea, and two genera of protozoa. Network analysis showed that bacteria, archaea, and protozoa significantly correlated with methane production and VFA production. This study indicates an optimal dose of thymol at 200 mg/L to facilitate rumen fermentation, the critical roles of bacteria in rumen fermentation, and their interactions with the archaea and protozoa.
Project description:The rumen microbiome is fundamental for the productivity and health of dairy cattle and diet is known to influence the rumen microbiota composition. In this study, grape-pomace, a natural source of polyphenols, and copper sulfate were provided as feed supplementation in 15 Holstein-Friesian calves, including 5 controls. After 75 days of supplementation, genomic DNA was extracted from the rumen liquor and prepared for 16S rRNA-gene sequencing to characterize the composition of the rumen microbiota. From this, the rumen metagenome was predicted to obtain the associated gene functions and metabolic pathways in a cost-effective manner. Results showed that feed supplementations did alter the rumen microbiome of calves. Copper and grape-pomace increased the diversity of the rumen microbiota: the Shannon's and Fisher's alpha indices were significantly different across groups (p-values 0.045 and 0.039), and Bray-Curtis distances could separate grape-pomace calves from the other two groups. Differentially abundant taxa were identified: in particular, an uncultured Bacteroidales UCG-001 genus and OTUs from genus Sarcina were the most differentially abundant in pomace-supplemented calves compared to controls (p-values 0.003 and 0.0002, respectively). Enriched taxonomies such as Ruminiclostridium and Eubacterium sp., whose functions are related to degradation of the grape- pomace constituents (e.g. flavonoids or xyloglucan) have been described (p-values 0.027/0.028 and 0.040/0.022 in Pomace vs Copper and Controls, respectively). The most abundant predicted metagenomic genes belonged to the arginine and proline metabolism and the two- component (sensor/responder) regulatory system, which were increased in the supplemented groups. Interestingly, the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic pathway was decreased in the two supplemented groups, possibly as a result of antimicrobial effects. Methanogenic taxa also responded to the feed supplementation, and methane metabolism in the rumen was the second most different pathway (up-regulated by feed supplementations) between experimental groups.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The rumen microbiota contributes strongly to the degradation of ingested plant materials. There is limited knowledge about the diversity of taxa involved in the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomasses with varying chemical compositions in the rumen.<h4>Method</h4>We aimed to assess how and to what extent the physicochemical properties of forages influence the colonization and digestion by rumen microbiota. This was achieved by placing nylon bags filled with candidate materials in the rumen of fistulated sheep for a period of up to 96 h, followed by measuring forage's chemical characteristics and community structure of biofilm-embedded microbiota.<h4>Results</h4>Rumen degradation for all forages appeared to have occurred mainly during the first 24 h of their incubation, which significantly slowed down after 48 h of rumen incubation, depending on their chemical properties. Random Forest analysis predicted the predominant role of <i>Treponema</i> and <i>Butyrivibrio</i> in shaping microbial diversity attached to the forages during the course of rumen incubation. Exploring community structure and composition of fiber-attached microbiota revealed significant differential colonization rates of forages depending on their contents for NDF and cellulose. The correlation analysis highlighted the significant contribution of <i>Lachnospiraceae</i> and <i>Veillonellaceae</i> to fiber degradation in the sheep rumen.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings suggested that forage cellulose components are critical in shaping the pattern of microbial colonization and thus their final digestibility in the rumen.