Project description:This work represents a maiden effort to systematically screen the transcriptome of the healing wound-edge tissue temporally using high-density GeneChips. Changes during the acute inflammatory phase of murine excisional wounds were characterized histologically. Sets of genes that significantly changed in expression during healing could be segregated into the following five sets: up-early (6-24 h; cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway), up-intermediary (12-96 h; leukocyte-endothelial interaction pathway), up-late (48-96 h; cell-cycle pathway), down-early (6-12 h; purine metabolism) and down-intermediary (12-96 h; oxidative phosphorylation pathway). Results from microarray and real-time PCR analyses were consistent. Results listing all genes that were significantly changed at any specific time point were further mined for cell-type (neutrophils, macrophages, endothelial, fibroblasts, and pluripotent stem cells) specificity. Candidate genes were also clustered on the basis of their functional annotation, linking them to inflammation, angiogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or extracellular matrix (ECM) categories. Rapid induction of genes encoding NADPH oxidase subunits and downregulation of catalase in response to wounding is consistent with the fact that low levels of endogenous H2O2 is required for wound healing. Angiogenic genes, previously not connected to cutaneous wound healing, that were induced in the healing wound-edge included adiponectin, epiregulin, angiomotin, Nogo, and VEGF-B. This study provides a digested database that may serve as a valuable reference tool to develop novel hypotheses aiming to elucidate the biology of cutaneous wound healing comprehensively.
Project description:Wound healing is a complex biological process involving the interaction of many cell types to replace lost or damaged tissue. Although the biology of wound healing has been extensively investigated, few studies have focused on the role of mast cells. In this study, we investigated the possible role of mast cells in wound healing by analyzing aspects of cutaneous excisional wound healing in three types of genetically mast cell-deficient mice. We found that C57BL/6-Kit(W-sh/W-sh), WBB6F1-Kit(W/W-v), and Cpa3-Cre; Mcl-1(fl/fl) mice re-epithelialized splinted excisional skin wounds at rates very similar to those in the corresponding wild type or control mice. Furthermore, at the time of closure, scars were similar in the genetically mast cell-deficient mice and the corresponding wild type or control mice in both quantity of collagen deposition and maturity of collagen fibers, as evaluated by Masson's Trichrome and Picro-Sirius red staining. These data indicate that mast cells do not play a significant non-redundant role in these features of the healing of splinted full thickness excisional cutaneous wounds in mice.
Project description:The aim of this experiment was measure the influence of age on cutaneous wound healing using human subjects. Increaded age has been associated with delayed wound healing in mouse models and in humans. Gene expression was compared between excisional biopsy wounds from young and old subjects.
Project description:Damage to cutaneous nerves inhibits wound healing in patients. Results from animals on the nerve contributions to healing are various and sometimes contradictory. Here, we aim to clearly define the collective role of central, caudal, and rostral nerves in ear wound healing of mice, rats, and rabbits. These wounds heal with minimal contraction like wounds in humans. We resected central, caudal, and rostral nerves at the base of ear pinnae by microsurgery and created excisional full-thickness skin wounds in the pinnae neurologically downstream from the resections. Denervation in mice resulted in no closure for 14 days post-wounding (dpw) and led to only 17.2% closure at 21 dpw when the excisional wounds of non-denervated ear pinnae were completely closed. Compared to excisional wounds that were not denervated in sham surgery, wounds with denervation showed an increase of excisional wound areas for 5.0% by 7 dpw and a 43.7% reduction of wound closure at 12 dpw for rats. In rabbits, denervation attenuated wound closure for 14.2, 34.4, and 28.3% at 7, 14, and 18 dpw, respectively. Our histological analysis showed marked denervation impairment in pivotal healing processes, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue growth, suggesting denervation impairment in the regeneration of blood capillaries and/or connective tissue in wounds. These results reveal the critical contributions made by central, caudal, and rostral nerves in ear pinnae to minimal-contraction skin wound healing. Our study also provides small animal models of minimal-contraction wound healing of denervated ear skins that recapitulate human wound healing involving surgical or traumatic nerve damages.
Project description:Re-epithelialization is a fundamental process in wound healing that involves various cytokines and cells during cutaneous barrier reconstruction. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 15 (USP15), an important member of the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), removes ubiquitin chains from target proteins and maintains protein stability. However, the dynamic role of USP15 in epithelialization remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the regulatory function of USP15 in re-epithelialization. An excisional wound splinting model was established to evaluate the re-epithelialization rate in Usp15 knockout (KO) mice. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and mass spectrum analyses were performed to identify USP15-interacting proteins. RNA-sequencing was performed for transcriptome analysis in keratinocytes and uploaded into NODE database (http://www.biosino.org/node, accession numbers: OEP000770 and OEP000763). First, a significant delay in epithelialization was observed in the Usp15 KO mice. Moreover, inhibition of cell migration and proliferation was observed in the USP15-silenced keratinocytes (HaCaTs). Moreover, we revealed for the first time that USP15 could interact with eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-1 (EIF4A1), thereby promoting translational efficacy in keratinocytes, which is essential for keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Conclusively, the USP15-EIF4A1 complex significantly accelerated re-epithelialization in wound healing. These observations helped elucidate the function and mechanisms of USP15 in modulating re-epithelialization in wound healing, providing a promising target for refractory wound treatment.
Project description:The African spiny mouse (Acomys spp.) can heal full thickness excisional skin wounds in a scar-free manner with regeneration of all dermal components including hair and associated structures. Comparing Acomys scar-free healing from Mus scarring identifies gene expression differences that discriminate these processes. We have performed an extensive comparison of gene expression profiles in response to 8mm full-thickness excisional wounds at days 3, 5, 7 and 14 post-wounding between Acomys and Mus to characterize differences in wound healing, and identify mechanisms involved in scar-free healing. We also identify similarities with scar-free healing observed in fetal wounds. While wounding in Mus elicits a strong inflammatory response, wounding in Acomys produces a moderated immune response and little to no increase in expression for most cytokines and chemokines assayed. We also identified differences in the ECM profiles of the Acomys wounds, which appear to have a collagen profile more similar to fetal wounds, with larger increases in expression of collagen types III and V. In contrast, Mus wounds have very high levels of collagen XII. This data suggests that an overall lack of induction of cytokines and chemokines, coupled with an ECM profile more similar to fetal wounds, may underlie scar-free wound healing in Acomys skin. These data identify candidate genes for further testing in order to elucidate the causal mechanisms of scar-free healing.
Project description:Cutaneous wound healing consists of three main phases: inflammation, re-epithelialization, and tissue remodeling. During normal wound healing, these processes are tightly regulated to allow restoration of skin function and biomechanics. In many instances, healing leads to an excess accumulation of fibrillar collagen (the principal protein found in the extracellular matrix - ECM), and the formation of scar tissue, which has compromised biomechanics, tested using ramp to failure tests, compared to normal skin (Corr and Hart, 2013 ). Alterations in collagen accumulation and architecture have been attributed to the reduced tensile strength found in scar tissue (Brenda et al., 1999; Eleswarapu et al., 2011). Defining mechanisms that govern cellular functionality and ECM remodeling are vital to understanding normal versus pathological healing and developing approaches to prevent scarring. CD44 is a cell surface adhesion receptor expressed on nearly all cell types present in dermis. Although CD44 has been implicated in an array of inflammatory and fibrotic processes such as leukocyte recruitment, T-cell extravasation, and hyaluronic acid (the principal glycosaminoglycan found in the ECM) metabolism, the role of CD44 in cutaneous wound healing and scarring remains unknown. We demonstrate that in an excisional biopsy punch wound healing model, CD44-null mice have increased inflammatory and reduced fibrogenic responses during early phases of wound healing. At wound closure, CD44-null mice exhibit reduced collagen degradation leading to increased accumulation of fibrillar collagen, which persists after wound closure leading to reduced tensile strength resulting in a more severe scarring phenotype compared to WT mice. These data indicate that CD44 plays a previously unknown role in fibrillar collagen accumulation and wound healing during the injury response.
Project description:Impaired wound healing can lead to scarring, and aesthetical and functional problems. The cytoprotective haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes degrade haem into iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide. HO-1 deficient mice suffer from chronic inflammatory stress and delayed cutaneous wound healing, while corneal wound healing in HO-2 deficient mice is impaired with exorbitant inflammation and absence of HO-1 expression. This study addresses the role of HO-2 in cutaneous excisional wound healing using HO-2 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we show that HO-2 deficiency also delays cutaneous wound closure compared to WT controls. In addition, we detected reduced collagen deposition and vessel density in the wounds of HO-2 KO mice compared to WT controls. Surprisingly, wound closure in HO-2 KO mice was accompanied by an inflammatory response comparable to WT mice. HO-1 induction in HO-2 deficient skin was also similar to WT controls and may explain this protection against exaggerated cutaneous inflammation but not the delayed wound closure. Proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation were similar in both two genotypes. Next, we screened for candidate genes to explain the observed delayed wound closure, and detected delayed gene and protein expression profiles of the chemokine (C-X-C) ligand-11 (CXCL-11) in wounds of HO-2 KO mice. Abnormal regulation of CXCL-11 has been linked to delayed wound healing and disturbed angiogenesis. However, whether aberrant CXCL-11 expression in HO-2 KO mice is caused by or is causing delayed wound healing needs to be further investigated.
Project description:Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.
Project description:Wound healing involves an orchestrated response that engages multiple processes, such as hemostasis, cellular migration, extracellular matrix synthesis, and in particular, inflammation. Using a murine model of cutaneous wound repair, the transcriptome was mapped from 12 h to 8 days post-injury, and in response to a multicomponent, multi-target natural product, Tr14. Using single-molecule RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), there were clear temporal changes in known transcripts related to wound healing pathways, and additional novel transcripts of both coding and non-coding genes. Tr14 treatment modulated >100 transcripts related to key wound repair pathways, such as response to wounding, wound contraction, and cytokine response. The results provide the most precise and comprehensive characterization to date of the transcriptome's response to skin damage, repair, and multicomponent natural product therapy. By understanding the wound repair process, and the effects of natural products, it should be possible to intervene more effectively in diseases involving aberrant repair.